Amblyopia or "a lazy eye" - quite widespread ophthalmologic disease. It arises because of pathologies of development of visual system and leads to decrease in visual acuity. Most often at an amblyopia at adults or children only one eye needs correction of sight. In that case a disease call unilateral. At severe far-sightedness, short-sightedness or other pathologies of both eyes the amblyopia is called bilateral.
Quite often the person does not even guess that he has an amblyopia, and one of his eyes badly sees. The brain of the patient gets used to perceive information only from one eye. This organ of sight gradually becomes the leader, and the second eye, without participating in sight process, begins to deviate aside. So at an amblyopia squint – quite widespread complication of a disease develops.
The amblyopia can develop against the background of the acquired defects of a cornea, a lens of an eye or a century as a result of injuries, new growths, etc. However the most common form of pathology is the inborn amblyopia which is diagnosed at early age.
The amblyopia at children arises, as a rule, as a result of family predisposition to far-sightedness, an astigmatism or other problems with sight. The disease is quite often diagnosed for premature kids or babies with a low weight at the birth.
The amblyopia at children is fraught with serious complications. Unequal work of eyes leads to distortion of information coming to a brain of the child. Thereof the kid has a deformation of visual bark, and its neurons stop development. Therefore in case of late treatment of an amblyopia sight of young patients can and remain low with children, even despite elimination of the reasons which caused a disease.
At timely therapy defects of an amblyopia are reversible. And the earlier medical actions will begin, the forecast is more favorable. So, for example, at an amblyopia at children with a unilateral inborn cataract the best results are achieved in treatment of a disease within the first months of life of the child.
The amblyopia at adults and children with visual acuity to 0,8-0,4 is called a disease of low degree. The amblyopia with coefficient of sight 0,3-0,2 is considered pathology of average degree. At an amblyopia with indicators of sight 0,1-0,04 and below the diagnosis "high" or "very high degree of an amblyopia" is made.
Depending on the mechanism of development of a disease it is accepted to allocate a disbinokulyarny or refraction amblyopia. The first type of a disease develops as a result of chronic disturbances of solid vision against the background of squint. The ametropia (disturbance of refractivities of an eye) at short-sightedness or far-sightedness leads to a refraction amblyopia.
Opacification of an eye (cataract or cataract) can serve as the reason of one more type of an amblyopia - obskuratsionny. The Anizometropichesky form of a disease – the investigation of a different refraction of eyes at the astigmatism caused by defects of a crystalline lens or cornea.
"Amblyopia" establishes the diagnosis the ophthalmologist on planned survey of the child in 1,3 and 6 months. During it the doctor checks visual acuity, the movement and position of eyes. The amblyopia at adults is diagnosed during professional survey or in the presence of complaints for the patient to problems with sight. During diagnosis the return and direct oftalmoskopiya, and also various tests is applied to check of visual acuity, quality of refraction and a field of vision.
Traditional method of treatment of an amblyopia – occlusion. So the forced exception of process of sight of a healthy eye by means of special glasses with a plastic or rubber lens on a healthy eye is called. The mode of treatment of an amblyopia as method of occlusion is chosen by the doctor.
Also correction of sight by means of video computer auto-training (VKA), methods of stimulation of an eye across Avetisov by means of the blinding irritation of a retina or on Kyuppersa using ocular spectrums is possible.
In treatment of an amblyopia at adults and children also various therapeutic techniques are applied: wearing glasses massagers, ultrasonic and infrared laser therapy, vacuum massage, electrostimulation and magnetotherapy.
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