Anchylosis – a disease as a result of which the full immovability of a joint develops. It results from the pathological changes happening in a joint. As a rule, the injury, arthritis or arthrosis becomes a push to development of a disease.
During an ankilozirovaniye of the affected joint it becomes hard mobile in the beginning, and over time loses mobility at all. Ankiloza of joints happen bone to growth of a bone tissue and fibrous to growth of connecting fibrous fabric.
Ankiloza and a contracture have similar signs. The most important symptom of an anchylosis is limited mobility of a joint. Other symptoms depend generally on that situation in which there was a fixing. For example, if the anchylosis of a knee joint happens when the leg is in a halfbent state at an angle, then the patient will not be able to go. If the leg is recorded in the straightened state, then the patient will be able quite freely both to go and to work.
At a false ankylosis of a joint the most important symptom is its morbidity at commission of kachatelny movements. At a bone anchylosis of the patient, as a rule, does not feel pain.
There are several origins of ankiloz and a contracture. The heavy intra joint changes resulting from disturbance of joint surfaces, inflammatory changes of joints (arthroses and arthritises), open injuries of a joint at which the long purulent process leading to a degeneration of a cartilaginous cover of joint surfaces and growth of a connecting fibrous or bone tissue is observed are the main reasons.
Also emergence of an anchylosis of a joint is quite often promoted by long stay in gypsum.
At suspicion on an anchylosis and a contracture the patient needs to address the surgeon or the traumatologist who will analyze a case history, will ask the patient necessary questions and will define degree of mobility of the affected joint. For the purpose of specification of the diagnosis of the patient will direct to joint X-ray, and also a computer tomography or magnetic and resonant therapy.
Depending on extent of damage of a joint treatment of an anchylosis can be conservative or operational. At this disease earlier diagnosis and treatment is of great importance.
Conservative treatment of an anchylosis is directed to recovery of mobility of a joint, removal of pain at the movement and increase in a tone of muscles. For this purpose without fail to the patient appoint the remedial gymnastics directed to the rhythmic tension of a sore leg or hand in a plaster bandage, manual therapy, muscular massage. Drug treatment means reception of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hormones and analgetics which are entered into a joint cavity.
Widely apply physical therapy to treatment of an anchylosis and a contracture. The electrophoresis, UVCh, SMT effectively help to remove an inflammation, puffiness, to take off painful effects in joints and to recover its mobility.
The false ankylosis is treated by specially developed kachatelny movements (with preliminary anesthesia). At a false ankylosis operational treatment is preferential shown. Use of an arthroplasty at which the joint ends of bones are separated and form new joint surfaces is widespread. Between new joint surfaces place special laying from plastic fabric. The uncomfortable position of an extremity at an anchylosis is eliminated by means of its straightening (osteotomy). In especially hard cases carrying out full replacement of a joint is possible (endoprosthesis replacement).
To avoid development of this disease, it is necessary to treat with special attention a sore joint. It is desirable to begin its complex treatment and treatment of intra joint changes using the internal and outside medicinal therapy and remedial gymnastics directed to development of muscles and a sore joint as soon as possible.
For prevention of emergence and development of arthrosis in the next joints at an anchylosis regular trainings by physical culture, physical therapy, medical massage and sanatorium treatment are recommended.
To avoid functionally unprofitable anchylosis, the correct immobilization of the extremity injured as a result of an injury is recommended.
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