Arrhythmia of heart is understood as set of disturbances of a cordial rhythm. These disturbances have the different reason, development mechanisms, clinical manifestations and forecasts. Therefore, at the diagnosis heart arrhythmia, treatment is appointed only after comprehensive examination of the patient, definition of nature of a disease and a clinical picture of its development.
As a rule, arrhythmia of heart comes to light after organic lesion of body (defects, pathologies, a myocardial infarction), but cases when the disease arises owing to disturbances of functions of a nervous system, intoxications or changes of water-salt balance in an organism are frequent. Let's notice also that arrhythmias of heart can be shown also at quite healthy people under the influence of cold, physical overfatigue or, say, alcoholic beverages.
One more important point: many disturbances of a rhythm (atrial premature ventricular contraction) can not be felt by the person at all and do not bring to any serious effects. In this case doctors speak about extracardiac pathology and undertake measures for search of a basic disease. On the other hand, heart arrhythmia which reasons are caused, for example, by ventricular tachycardia is far not so harmless, it is the reason of a sudden cardiac standstill in 83% of the registered cases. Are not less dangerous to the patient of AV-blockade and bradycardia (we will tell slightly below about them), often leading to a loss of consciousness and a lethal outcome.
Disturbances of a cordial rhythm appear owing to:
Once again we will notice that at the diagnosis heart arrhythmia, symptoms depend not only on the reason which caused adverse changes but also on the nature of the disease. For this reason and in our country, and abroad often there are situations when elimination of an etiology does not lead to recovery of a normal cordial rhythm. Only exact data on different types of arrhythmia of heart and laws of their development will help to cope with this trouble.
In general, heart arrhythmia which symptoms depend on a set of factors is followed by an urezheniye of a cordial rhythm (less than 60 beats per minute), its increase (more than 100 blows) or an irregularity of cordial reductions. Within this classification scientists allocate tens of types of arrhythmias of heart, but we will talk only about the most widespread of them – bradikardiya (heart arrhythmia to a rare rhythm) and tachycardias (the disturbance which are followed by increase of a cordial rhythm).
Main types of bradycardia are a weak sinus arrhythmia of heart (sick sinus syndrome) and an atrioventricular block (the term AV-blockade is more often applied). Types of tachycardia are much more various, but the main of them is a fibrillation of auricles (mertsalny arrhythmia of heart), supraventricular tachycardias and ventricular tachycardia. All these types are subdivided on paroxysmal and constant. The first are characterized by sudden increase of a rhythm which can last as several seconds, and several hours and even days. If at the person paroxysmal arrhythmia of heart develops, effects are, as a rule, not so serious as disturbance of a rhythm takes place by itself without foreign intervention or after reception of eurysynusic cardiacs. Constant tachycardias it is much more dangerous as are steady against medicinal therapy and cause constant load of heart that, certainly, considerably reduces human life term.
As for bradikardiya. The most known of them - the sick sinus syndrome caused by disturbance of passing of an impulse at contact of a sinus node and fabrics of an auricle. The sinus arrhythmia of heart can observe also at quite healthy people who regularly play sports, but much more often it is a consequence of morbid conditions. In particular, it is caused: the increased arterial pressure, a hypothyroidism, some infectious diseases.
Displays of bradycardia and tachycardia – are various therefore we will consider their separate.
The rare heart rhythm (bradycardia) is followed by the following symptoms:
Short-term losses of consciousness are characteristic of bradikardiya. The unconscious person lies only several seconds, is more rare – minutes. Mertsalny arrhythmia of heart and other types of tachycardia cannot brag of similar humanity as they for long time deprive of the patient of ability to perceive surrounding reality and quite often demand immediate resuscitation for preservation of human life. In all the rest symptoms of tachycardias are similar to manifestations of bradikardiya.
Let's notice that in one cases arrhythmia of heart can be followed by symptoms of acute or chronic heart failure (breath disturbance, a fluid lungs, sharp falling of arterial pressure), and in others – an instant loss of consciousness and clinical death. As you can see, this disease proves cardinally opposite signs, and, perhaps, its main danger consists in it.
The only effective way to get rid of the majority of types of bradikardiya – to implant a constant electrocardiostimulator. Its installation is justified when at the person symptoms of an atrioventricular block or the sinus arrhythmia of heart which is followed by decrease in a rhythm to 40 and less beats per minute are shown. If bradycardia have no yarok of the expressed clinical manifestations, doctors are facetted by the general therapy and do not see need in an urgent operative measure.
As fibrillation of auricles (a ciliary arrhythmia of heart) can be both pristupoobrazny, and a constant – treatment depends on the nature of disturbances of a rhythm. Infrequent attacks are stopped, and constants demand regular administration of drugs and prevention of strokes. For suspension of development of an attack are used новокаинамид and quinidine. In recent years new medicines, for example, кордарон or пропанорм are even more often applied. If the patient has no contraindications to the general anesthesia, the ciliary arrhythmia of heart can be stopped by means of electric cardioversion. At the same time all necessary events have to be held within 48 hours, otherwise the risk of formation of blood clots and emergence of other complications significantly increases.
Ventricular tachycardia is also life-threatening. She demands the urgent request for medical care as she quickly enough develops to a condition of clinical death at which only resuscitation actions can help. At the same time the patient needs to be laid correctly on a firm surface (having as much as possible thrown back him the head or having turned it sideways in case of vomiting), to check independence of breath and in case of lack of it to make an artificial respiration and an indirect cardiac massage.
At once we will note that at the diagnosis heart arrhythmia, folk remedies have to be used only as addition to traditional medical supplies, but not to replace them at all. As a matter of fact, herbs only accelerate recovery process, but are not capable to cure the person completely. From this it is necessary to proceed at the choice of the pleasant recipes.
Each person has not only unique fingerprints, but also language.
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