- Raynaud's disease symptoms
- Etiologies of Reynaud
- Treatment of the Raynaud's disease
The disease of defeat of the segmented device of a brain and peripheral departments of the autonomic nervous system, concerns to group of angiotrofonevroz (synonyms: vasculomotor and trophic neurosis, vascular and trophic neuropathy).
Raynaud's disease symptoms:
The disease occurs at women by 5 times more often than at men, it is preferential at young and middle age. In classical cases distinguish three stages of a disease.
The first stage is characterized by a sudden spasm of capillaries and arteries of a certain site. Usually this site becomes deathly pale, cold to the touch, sensitivity decreases in it. Attack duration from several minutes to an hour and more then the spasm passes and the site takes a normal form. Attacks can repeat through various intervals of time.
The second stage is caused by the asphyxia phenomena. The spasm is shown by blue-violet coloring of skin, appear a pricking, and from time to time and severe pains, in places of asphyxia sensitivity disappears. The large role in the mechanism of development of this stage is played by paresis of veins. After a while these phenomena pass. Chances when there is only the first, and in others - only the second stage. Transition of the first stage of a disease to the second is observed.
The third stage develops after long asphyxia. On the extremity having violet-blue color edematous, bubbles with bloody contents appear. After opening of a bubble on its place the necrosis of fabrics, and in more hard cases - not only skin, but also all fabrics to a bone is found. Process comes to an end with scarring of the formed ulcer surface. Clinical manifestations are more often localized on fingers of hands, standing and absolutely seldom on ears, a nose tip. Feature of a disease is symmetry of these manifestations.
The disease is chronic. Process lasts decades. Gangrene happens seldom; at the same time nail phalanxes are exposed to necrosis or speak rapidly them. At one patients paroxysms repeat several times in day, at others appear with monthly intervals.
Etiologies of Reynaud:
Reynaud described a disease in 1862 and considered that it is neurosis owing to a hyperexcitability of spinal vasomotor centers. Then it was established that such symptom complex can be both an independent disease, and a syndrome at some nosological forms, for example, at spondilogenny pathology. Infections, endocrine disturbances (a thyroid gland, adrenal glands), inborn insufficiency of side horns of a spinal cord matter. There is a dysfunction of vasomotor centers at various level (bark of hemicerebrums, a hypothalamus, a brainstem, a spinal cord) therefore the tone of vasoconstrictors raises. The vasospasm causes blanching of distal departments of hands and legs, is more rare than a nose, ears, lips, asphyxia, fall of temperature of an affected area and a necrosis of fabrics. Pain is caused by irritation of sensitive nerve fibrils the toxic substances arising in the ischemic site.
Treatment of the Raynaud's disease:
Apply the central and peripheral adrenoblockers (aminazine, Tropaphenum, dihydroergotamine), ganglioblokator (Pachycarpinum, petrolhexonium, Gangleronum), tranquilizers, spasmolytic vasodilators (Platyphyllinum, niacin, trental), Actovegin, etc. Heat baths are reasonable. At small therapeutic effect the desimpatization or a preganglionic sympathectomy are shown.
The forecast concerning life good, however an absolute recovery does not come. If the disease arises during puberty, then quite often with age there can occur considerable improvement or even recovery.