- Symptoms of the Pain syndrome
- Reasons of the Pain syndrome
- Treatment of the Pain syndrome
From the point of view of medicine, pain is:
- type of feeling, peculiar unpleasant feeling;
- reaction to this feeling which is characterized by a certain emotional coloring, reflex changes of functions of internals, motive instinctive reflexes, and also the strong-willed efforts directed to disposal of a painful factor.
- the unpleasant touch and emotional experience connected with real or alleged damage of fabrics, and at the same time the reaction of an organism mobilizing various functional systems for its protection against influence of a pathogenic factor.
Long pain is followed by change of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse, expansion of pupils, change of concentration of hormones).
Symptoms of the Pain syndrome:
The acute pain decides as pain, short on manifestation time, on easily identified reason. The acute pain is the prevention to an organism about the danger of organic damage or a disease existing at present. Often persistent and acute pain is followed by also aching pain. The acute pain usually concentrates in a certain site before it somehow extends more widely. This type of pain usually well gives in to treatment.
Chronic pain originally was defined as pain which proceeds about 6 months and more. Now it is defined as pain which persistently remains longer than that corresponding interval of time during which it usually has to come to the end. Often it more difficult for treatment, than an acute pain. The special attention is required at the appeal to any pains which became chronic. In exceptional cases neurosurgeons can perform difficult operation on removal of separate parts of a brain of the patient to cope with chronic pains. Similar intervention can save the patient from subjective feeling of pain, but as signals from the painful center will be transmitted all the same on neurons, the body will continue to react to them.
Skin pain arises at injury of skin or hypodermic fabrics. Skin nociceptors terminate slightly below than skin, and thanks to high concentration of nerve terminations provide the high-precision, localized feeling of pain of small duration.
The somatic pain arises in ligaments, sinews, joints, bones, blood vessels and even in nerves. It is defined by somatic nociceptors. Because of shortage of pain receptors in these sites they make stupid, badly localizable, more long pain, than at skin pains. Here stretchings of joints and the broken bones enter, for example.
Internal pain arises from body internals. Internal nociceptors are located in bodies and in internal cavities. Still big shortage of pain receptors in these body parts leads to emergence more complaining and long, in comparison with somatic, pains. It is especially heavy to localize internal pain, and some internal organic damages represent the "attributed" pains when the feeling of pain is attributed to a body part which is not connected with the site of the damage in any way. Cardiac ischemia (insufficient content of blood in a cardiac muscle) is, perhaps, the most known example of the attributed pain; the feeling can be located as the separate feeling of pain is slightly higher than a thorax, in the left shoulder, a hand or even in a palm. The attributed pain can speak opening of the fact that pain receptors excite in internals also spinal neurons which are excited at skin damages. After the brain begins to associate excitement of these spinal neurons with stimulation of somatic fabrics in skin or muscles, the painful signals going from internals begin to be interpreted by a brain as coming from skin.
Stump neuralgia in extremities — the feeling of pain arising in the lost extremity or in an extremity which is not felt by means of usual feelings. This phenomenon is practically always connected with cases of amputations and paralysis.
Neuropathic pain ("neuralgia") can develop as result of damage or a disease of nervous tissues (for example, a dentagra). It can break a possibility of sensory nerves to transfer the correct information to a thalamus (department of a diencephalon), and from here the brain incorrectly interprets painful incentives even if there are no obvious physiological reasons of pain.
Psychogenic pain is diagnosed in the absence of an organic disease or in that case when the last cannot explain character and expressiveness of a pain syndrome. Psychogenic pain always has chronic character and arises against the background of mental disorders: depressions, alarms, morbid depressions, hysteria, phobia. At a considerable part of patients an important role is played by psychosocial factors (dissatisfaction with work, aspiration to receive moral or material benefit). Especially close ties exist between chronic pain and a depression.
Reasons of the Pain syndrome:
In dependence of the mechanism and type of damage happens:
- neyropatichesky pain, arises at damage of one of parts of the nervous system (central and peripheral);
- the notseptivny pain (from Latin noci - damage) connected with damage of tissues of skin, muscles or internals;
- the mixed pain (has signs of above-mentioned types).
Pain origins conditionally divide into two groups:
external reasons (burn, injury, freezing injury, etc.);
the internal reasons (intoxication, an inflammation, disturbance of blood circulation (ischemia) in fabrics and bodies or, for example, the prelum characteristic at a heartache).
Treatment of the Pain syndrome:
procedures using cold (compresses) or it is warm,
different types of massage;
electrostimulation (action is based on activation of the specific centers of a spinal cord oppressing carrying out painful impulses);
acupuncture treatment (acupuncture).
Today the list of the anesthetizing drugs is very big and various.
However it is necessary to understand that the majority of drugs suppress a painful impulsation in a brain, but does not remove the cause of pain (for example, at a heart disease). At the same time all medicines possess these or those side effects. Important, before reception of medicines for treatment of pain to get advice of the professional doctor.