- Dysarthtia symptoms
- Dysarthtia reasons
- Treatment of the Dysarthtia
Dysarthtia (from other - Greek δυσ-— the prefix meaning a zatrudnyonnost, frustration + — "I joint, I connect") — the disturbance of a pronunciation owing to an insufficient innervation of organs of articulation resulting from defeats of zadnelobny and subcrustal departments of a brain. At a dysarthtia unlike aphasia mobility of organs of speech (a soft palate, language, lips) because of what the articulation is complicated is limited. At adults the dysarthtia is not followed by disintegration of speech system: disturbances of perception of the speech aurally, readings, letters. At children's age the dysarthtia quite often leads to disturbance of pronouncing words and, as a result, to disturbance of reading and the letter, and sometimes to the general underdevelopment of the speech. Speech shortcomings at a dysarthtia can be corrected by means of logopedic occupations.
Disturbance of a sound pronunciation and the speech are easily distinguished as the speech greased, deaf, it is frequent with a nasal shade. Figurative "diagnostic symptom" of a dysarthtia: "Speaks, how with mushmouth". In turn the dysarthtia is one of symptoms of bulbar or pseudobulbar paralysis.
Forms of a dysarthtia depend on the place of defeat. Distinguish several forms of a dysarthtia:
* bulbar (d. bulbaris from гр. — the bulb which form is reminded by a myelencephalon) is caused by peripheral paresis or paralysis of the muscles which are taking part in an articulation owing to damage of the glossopalatine, wandering and hypoglossal nerves and their kernels. It is often combined with dysphagias. Is one of symptoms of a bulbar syndrome;
* cortical (d. corticalis) is caused by defeat of the departments of a cerebral cortex connected with function of the muscles which are taking part in an articulation; differs in disorder of pronouncing syllables at preservation of the correct structure of the word;
* cerebellar (d. cerebellaris) is caused by damage of a cerebellum or its conduction paths; it is characterized by the stretched, scanning speech with disturbance of modulation and the changing loudness;
* extrapyramidal (hyperkinetic, subcrustal) (d. extrapyramidalis) — the dysarthtia arising at defeat of subcrustal nodes and their nervous bonds. The speech greased, muffled with a nasal shade, is sharply violated a prosodika, intonational and melodic structure of the speech, its speed;
* parkinsonichesky (d. parkinsonika) — the type of the extrapyramidal dysarthtia observed at parkinsonism, which is characterized by the slowed-down inexpressive speech, disturbances of modulation of a voice. Demands treatment of a basic disease;
* pseudobulbar (d. pseudobulbaris from other - Greek — false + bulbar) it is caused by the central paralysis of the muscles innervated glossopalatine, wandering and hypoglossal nerves, owing to bilateral defeat of motive cortical and nuclear ways; it is shown by monotony of the speech. Is one of symptoms of a pseudobulbar syndrome;
* extrapyramidal (d. extrapyramidalis) is caused by defeat of striopallidal system;
* the erased form — disturbance of a pronunciation of the whistling and hissing sounds as a side sigmatism, is for the first time allocated by the Czech doctor M. Szeemann; often happens the only symptom testimonial of existence at the child not diagnosed. See the Dyslalia;
* cold — the symptom at a myasthenia and a myasthenic syndrome which is shown in difficulties of an articulation at fall of temperature in the room and speaking on cold. Demands treatment of a basic disease. Often serves as the only symptom testifying about to the hidden or not diagnosed inborn myopathy.
Treatment of the Dysarthtia:
At a dysarthtia combined medical and pedagogical effect is required. Logopedic correction is made in combination with drug treatment and LFK. Use at correction of the proiznositelny party of the speech of logopedic tools is of particular importance. In children's logopedic practice the important part is assigned to the general development of all parties of the speech: the dictionary, a grammatical system, phonemic hearing as the children suffering from a dysarthtia experience in school days difficulties in assimilation of a written language. Training of such children in the preschool period in logopedic groups of kindergarten, in school days — at special speech schools is the most reasonable.