- Symptoms of Short-sightedness (Myopia)
- Reasons of Short-sightedness (Myopia)
- Treatment of Short-sightedness (Myopia)
Short-sightedness (myopia) – it frequent pathology of a refraction of an eye at which the image of objects forms before a retina.
At people with short-sightedness or eye length - axial short-sightedness is increased, or the cornea has the big refracting force because of what there is a small focal length - refraction short-sightedness. As a rule, there is a combination of these two moments. Short-sighted people well see close and hardly in the distance. At short-sightedness remote objects seem indistinct, greased, unsharp. Visual acuity becomes lower than 1,0.
Symptoms of Short-sightedness (Myopia):
Depending on extent of decrease in visual acuity distinguish:
* a weak myopia - to 3 dioptries
* an average myopia - to 6 dioptries
* a strong myopia - it is higher than 6 dioptries
The progressing short-sightedness.
The state at which increase in degree of a myopia happens in a year on one and more dioptries – is considered the progressing short-sightedness. The myopia most intensively progresses children in school days, in the period of the most intensive visual loadings. In parallel with it there is active growth of an organism (and eyes, in particular). In some cases lengthening of an eyeglobe in the perednezadny direction can accept pathological character, causing deterioration in food of tissues of eye, gaps and peeling of a retina, an opacity of the vitreous body. Therefore the work connected with heavy lifting at the bent position of a body with a ducking is not recommended to persons with short-sightedness down, and also the sports activities demanding sharp concussion of a body (jumps, boxing, fight, etc.) as it can lead to peeling of a retina and even a blindness. Progressing of short-sightedness gradually leads to irreversible changes of the central departments of a retina and essential decrease in visual acuity. At detection of the peripheral dystrophies of a retina leading to its amotio at persons with short-sightedness the retina lazerokoagulyation is carried out.
Reasons of Short-sightedness (Myopia):
Some risk factors are established, namely:
* heredity – turns out that when both parents are short-sighted, at a half of children short-sightedness develops up to 18 years. If at both parents sight is normal, short-sightedness develops only at 8% of children. It is considered that hereditary factors define a number of defects in synthesis of protein of connecting fabric (collagen) necessary for a sclera eye cover structure. The lack of a food allowance of various microelements (such as Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, etc.), necessary for synthesis of a sclera, can promote progressing of short-sightedness.
* an overstrain of eyes - long and intensive visual loadings at a short distance, bad illumination of a workplace, the wrong landing during the reading and the letter, excessive hobby for the TV and computer. As a rule, emergence of short-sightedness matches on terms the beginning of school training.
* pepravilny correction – lack of correction of sight at the first emergence of short-sightedness conducts to a further overstrain of organs of sight and promotes progressing of short-sightedness, and sometimes to development of an amblyopia (a syndrome of a lazy eye), squint. If for work not truly chosen (too "strong") glasses or contact lenses are at a short distance used - it provokes an overstrain of a muscle of an eye and to promote increase in short-sightedness.
Treatment of Short-sightedness (Myopia):
Conservative treatment of short-sightedness:
* The correct correction of sight – by means of points or contact lenses which are picked up by the ophthalmologist.
* The training of muscles - tension of which leads to growth of a myopia (laser stimulation, video computer correction of sight, an instillation of medicines, special courses of eye gymnastics) – under observation of the ophthalmologist.
* Ophthalmologic diagnosis – ultrasonic measurement of the longitudinal size of an eye – at least 1 time in six months.
* Fortifying actions - swimming, massage of a collar zone, an alternating douche, etc. according to the recommendation of the ophthalmologist.
* Good nutrition – balanced on protein, vitamins and microelements such as Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, etc.
Now there are three recognized ways of correction of short-sightedness, namely:
Points - the most widespread method of correction of short-sightedness for today. At all the advantages, points give to the owner the mass of an inconvenience - are constantly soiled, mist over, slip and fall, prevent to play sports and any other vigorous physical activity. Points do not provide 100% of correction of sight. Points significantly limit side sight, break stereoscopic effect and space perception that is especially important for drivers. At accident or falling the broken glass lenses can cause a serious injury. Besides, incorrectly chosen glasses can serve as the reason of constant overfatigue of eyes and to progressing of short-sightedness. Nevertheless, points remain the simplest, cheap and safe method of correction of short-sightedness also today.
Contact lenses - contact lenses have a number of advantages before points and today can provide normal life even to very active and sports young man. Nevertheless, their carrying is also connected with certain inconveniences. Many people cannot just get used to a foreign object in an eye. A frequent complication are allergic reactions, so it is easy to recognize many "users" of contact lenses by constantly red eyes. Even the people adapted to carrying contact lenses are not insured from risk of infectious complications, including heavy, threatening with total loss of sight. It is absolutely contraindicated to carry them during any, even the most slight, catarrhal diseases. Process of removal and installation of lenses is quite unpleasant and, it is worse than that, the contact lens can come off at the most inappropriate moment.
Laser correction of sight – for adults (18 years are more senior) at a stable form of short-sightedness modern ophthalmology offers the most progressive way of correction of short-sightedness – laser correction of sight.