- Hyposmia reasons
- Hyposmia symptoms
- Treatment of a hyposmia
Hyposmia – pathological easing of sense of smell. There is also an anosmia – total loss of sense of smell.
The hyposmia can be caused by two various factors. There are two types of such disease:
Essential hyposmia – local defeat of a "olfactory" zone of a brain or defeat of an olfactory nerve.
The receptor hyposmia arises owing to blocking of access of air to olfactory receptors.
Also can happen that the long receptor hyposmia can cause an atrophy of an olfactory nerve, than provoke an essential form of a disease.
The essential form can develop because of injuries of the head, a disease of a nervous system, tumors of a brain, polyneuropathy, Alzheimer's disease or strokes.
The receptor form meets at nasmorka, injuries mucous a nose and at smokers more often. In the latter case there is a constant irritation smoke mucous because of what it dries, and at some on the contrary bulks up. Sensitivity of receptors decreases or they are completely closed by a layer of the inflated mucous. In this case sense of smell decreases. Because of toxic influence of nicotine neuritis of an olfactory nerve can develop that involves an essential hyposmia.
The patient complains of decrease in sense of smell or of its total absence. Sometimes the sore one nostril feels smells better, than another. Often the hyposmia to develop imperceptibly, and only arbitrary factors can dig out to the person that he has problems with sense of smell.
"Hyposmia" can make the diagnosis only the otolaryngologist on the basis of a clinical picture. At diagnosis collecting the anamnesis, olfactory tests and inspection by means of an alfaktometr is made. Having made the diagnosis "hyposmia" the doctor carries out additional measures for specification like disease. The roentgenogram of a skull is for this purpose used. Consultations with other specialists doctors for the purpose of an exception of the oncological, allergic or neurologic nature of a disease are held.
Treatment of a hyposmia:
At a receptor hyposmia treatment is carried out by means of the funds allocated for improvement of a condition of a mucous membrane of a nose. Smoothly it is impossible to cure it of smoking diseases.
The essential hyposmia is treated more difficultly. Efficiency and ways of treatment depend on a disease etiology. In rare instances there occurs recovery.
The hyposmia caused by infectious diseases (flu, etc.), allergies, dryness of air and the increased temperature will well respond to treatment. Recovery occurs in 1-3 months, sharpness of sense of smell is recovered completely. The hyposmia of smokers can also give in to treatment, however if there was a destruction of receptors or an olfactory nerve, then pathology gains irreversible character. Essential hyposmias will not respond to treatment at a diabetes mellitus, after craniocereberal injuries and at Alzheimer's disease.