- Description of a sigmatism
- Sigmatism reasons
- Sigmatism symptoms
- Treatment of a sigmatism
Description of a sigmatism:
Distortions of a pronunciation of the whistling sounds are called sigmatisms. Logopedists allocate interdental, side and nasal sigmatisms.
Weakness of a tip of language, anterior open bite, and also adenoid vegetations which complicate nasal breath (at the child the mouth is constantly slightly opened) can be the reasons of an interdental sigmatism of an articulation.
The side sigmatism most often arises owing to weakness of muscles of one half of language. Also the side open bite can be the cause, and disturbance of an innervation of language is in certain cases possible.
Interdental sigmatism. At this disturbance instead of a sound [c], the sound similar to English [t] is heard. Such sounding is caused by the fact that at the time of a sound pronunciation the tip of language is pushed between upper and lower foreteeth. Thereof the fillet in the middle of language is not formed, and the air stream leaving a mouth turns out scattered, is taktilno felt as warm.
Side sigmatism. At a side sigmatism instead of a sound [s] the peculiar squelching noise caused by the fact that language at the time of a pronunciation of a sound adopts the side provision (one its side edge is above, and another – below) is heard or the tip of language rests against upper teeth. For this reason the stream of expired air is sent sideways (to the left, to the right or to both parties at the same time). At the same time one of corners of lips is, as a rule, lowered, teeth are opened more than necessary.
At a nasal sigmatism the sound is characterized by a nasal, "nasal" additional sound, and reminds more [x]. At the time of an articulation of a lip are not stretched, language is removed deep into a mouth, the soft palate is lowered owing to what the air stream leaves through a nose, as gives to a sound a noticeable nasal shade.
Treatment of a sigmatism:
Interdental sigmatism. Work on elimination of such type of disturbance is based on performance of exercises for strengthening of muscles of a tip of language, development of the directed air stream. Besides the articulation of a sound [i] at which the provision of language is close to a normal articulation of a sound [with] is fulfilled.
Statement of the correct sound [c] is carried out from a basic sound [i] then the pronunciation of the put sound is automated at first in syllables, then in words, offers and coherent texts.
Elimination of a side sigmatism of disturbance requires performance of the exercises directed to a language rasplastyvaniye, ability to hold its wide, strengthening of side edges of language; development of the air stream going in the middle of language. At the same time it is important to watch that both halves of language worked evenly. It is also useful to fulfill an articulation of sounds [i] and [ф] (at [ф] there is a strong air stream directed in the middle of language). For elimination of a side pronunciation at the initial stage of work it is recommended to develop an interdental pronunciation of a sound [s] – the tip and side edges of language are fixed between teeth – it promotes development of the correct symmetric pose of language. In this situation it is possible to begin automation of a sound. Further, when language will cease to deviate, it is gradually transferred to the zazubny situation characteristic of the correct articulation of a sound.
Nasal sigmatism. At a preparatory stage of correctional work it is necessary to pay attention to formation of the correct speech exhalation, ability to keep bays in a smile with an exposure of foreteeth, and language - wide and flat in provisions on an under lip and behind the lower teeth.
Basic sounds for statement are sounds [i] and [ф]. Stretching lips in a smile (sound [i]) and holding wide language between teeth, the child says a sound [f], directing an air stream in the middle of language. Gradually the tip of language cleans up for the lower cutters – the sound [c] is heard.
When the sound is put, it is necessary to carry out automation of a sound to speeches for fixing of its correct pronunciation.