Opium drug addiction
- Reasons of opium drug addiction
- Symptoms of opium drug addiction
Opium drug addiction (opiomania) develops at the use of raw opium and all its derivative (opiates). Drugs of opium group are natural drugs (raw opium, that is juice of the immature made an incision poppy heads, and also dry poppy heads — poppy straw), opium alkaloids (morphine and codeine), synthetic drug from opiate group (methadone), and also semi-synthetic drugs which are produced by change of molecules of morphine (heroin). These drugs belong to heavy drugs, have similar narcotic influence, differ on the speed of formation of accustoming and features of intoxication of an organism.
Opium was known to mankind in an extreme antiquity, and initially the products received by poppy processing used as soothing and a calmative. From 70th of the 19th century opium drug addiction was described as a disease, and approximately at the same time heroin and which to N of the 20th century was applied only in the medical purposes was synthesized.
According to modern researches, nearly 90% of all addicts are made exactly by the patients accepting heroin drugs, and the number of addicts, especially among the younger generation, steadily grows. Heroin comes to the Russian Federation smuggling from Central Asia. It should be noted that in the USA of opium drugs it is much more, and dependence on them is observed at 0,7% of the population.
The most widespread drug is heroin which causes the most severe forms of drug addiction. Drugs of opium are used by addicts by smoking, inhalation, but most often enter them intravenously, or subcutaneously. The use of these drugs quickly enough leads to emergence of physical and mental dependence, and on average physical dependence forms from 2 weeks to 2 months.
At hit in an organism, opium drugs turn into morphine which influencing brain receptors, causes positive emotional experiences. At the same time at addicts narrowing of pupils, blanching of skin, respiratory depression and bradycardia is observed.
The long use of these drugs leads to chronic somatic disturbances, having drug addiction look is much more senior than the years, on a face wrinkles are shown, skin gets an icteric shade. Teeth can collapse and drop out, early baldness is observed, and the person can lose up to 10 kg of weight. Because of constant miotic pupils sight worsens.
Also reception of opiates exerts impact and on a mental condition of the person, at first it becomes brisk, speech and associative processes are accelerated, but gradually this rise is replaced by drowsiness, easing of attention, apathy. The identity of the patient degrades, thoughts are occupied only with where to extract drugs, moral installations decrease.
Reasons of opium drug addiction:
Heroin was synthesized from morphine, and it surpasses morphine in the properties many times over. Drug is used in the form of injections, smoked or smelled. Drug happens in the form of powder or capsules of white, brown or black color that depends on extent of its processing and additives which are its part. On streets extends mixed with sugar, starch, chalk and other substances.
On a slang drug is called герыч, paste, a snowball, white, Hera, Gerasim. At reception of heroin in small doses of people relaxes, it observes euphoria, weakness, apathy, ease of thoughts, impossibility to concentrate, sometimes — nausea and vomiting, sweating. At the use of high doses of heroin above the called symptoms of opium drug addiction amplify, appear problems with a dream, pressure decreases, the cordial rhythm is slowed down.
If to accept heroin systematically, then the person is inclined to sharp change of mood, compression of veins because of injections, symptoms of diseases of a liver are shown, the organism is exhausted. At overdose by heroin pupils are narrowed to the sizes of a pin head, the heartbeat rhythm is broken, body temperature falls that leads to a deep sleep, paralysis of brain and nervous activity, and as a result — by death. At the heroin use by one syringe with other addicts the risk is very high to catch AIDS and hepatitises B and C.
The drug different from morphine on the chemical structure, influences an organism similarly. It was created in Germany at the time of World War II. Some time it was applied at anesthesia instead of morphine, and it can be applied orally. Since 1963 drug was used at treatment of addicts smakiers.
Methadone influences an organism within several days, and at its use in a dose more than 50 grams come death. Dependence on methadone recovers much more difficult, and the withdrawal pains are much more dangerous, than at refusal of heroin. Medical names of methadone — Amidonum, Dolophinum, Fenadonum, Heptadonum. At therapeutic reception of methadone it makes anesthetic and sedative impact, on nervous and cardiovascular systems, it is shown after 20-30 minutes after its oral reception.
Diagnosis of opium drug addiction at the use of methadone is carried out on such signs: slackness, hyperglycemia, jumps of body temperature, locks. Side effects from reception of methadone are nausea, dizzinesses, vomiting. At overdose the respiratory system is oppressed, lungs swell, and the renal failure is observed.
Pay attention that tolerance to methadone forms very slowly. Methadone stick intravenously, subcutaneously, and sometimes use inside in the form of tablets and capsules. At the systematic use of methadone it can be observed suffocation attacks, puffiness of extremities, and also a viral hepatitis of a liver, disturbance of work of lungs, locks, sleeplessness, nightmares develop. Often everything comes to an end with a lethal outcome.
Desomorphine is number the first in the list of the Russian Federation among narcotic and psychotropic drugs. It is nearly 10 times stronger, than morphine also is much more poisonous. Drug is produced from codeine-containing medicines which can be bought in drugstores, and occupies one of leading places on distribution in our country. Treat such drugs коделак, терпинкод, from them produce desomorphine which is sold afterwards in syringes.
For the first time it was received in the 1920th in attempts to develop stronger analgetic on the basis of morphine. New drug created very bystry dependence, and its impact on an organism it was short-term (till 4 o'clock). Influence from desomorphine occurs very quickly, and in a year of reception of people can already begin to decay alive, it damages body tissues because of internal necroses. Because of it it was prohibited for use in medical practice. Prevention of opium drug addiction was a main objective of prohibition, however after its introduction changed little. It gained extraordinary distribution because of low cost and ease of receiving. The fact that addicts get from drug dealers represents mix from desomorphine and its methyl derivative, and production of drug is carried out from the medicines bought in a drugstore and phosphorus with iodine.
Symptoms of opium drug addiction:
Emergence of tachycardia, a loss of appetite, expansion of pupils, feeling of apathy, weakness, a sleep disorder belongs to primary symptoms of opium drug addiction. The person cannot sometimes fall asleep, he is tormented muscle, joints pain. That is gradually the condition of "withdrawal pains" forms. Patients say what as if "unscrews" them, uneasiness, feeling of hopelessness at the same time appear. They are uneasy, rush about. Also dispepsichesky frustration from a GIT are at the same time observed, a frequent liquid chair (to 15 times a day), tachycardia, temperature increase. After end of an abstinence syndrome the inclination to drug, depressive mood, an adynamy, a sleep disorder remains.
Speed of development and feature of intoxication depend on a type of drug and a way of its hit in an organism. Usually the picture of drug intoxication is completely developed in 5-10 minutes after intravenous administration of drug, and lasts from 2 to 6 hours. At peroral or hypodermic introduction everything begins approximately in half an hour. 3 stages of opium intoxication are conditionally allocated:
euphoria, or "arrival";
intoxication, or "drag harrow", "high";
intoxication termination, abstinence ("кумар").
Euphoria can last not for long, approximately from 40 seconds to 5 minutes. At administration of drug intravenously, patients can feel a warm wave which rises from a stomach to the head, irritation in a throat, a skin itch in a forehead, a nose and a chin can be shown. Muscular excitement increases, the movements can become fussy, patients loudly laugh, gesticulate, cogitative and physical activity is increased. The self-assessment is raised, all purposes seem achievable, the world is filled with paints, grandiose plans are made. At those who inhales heroin in the form of powder, euphoria does not come, and at reception of codeine reddens, swells and pleasantly the upper body, a neck and a face itches.
Actually intoxication, or "high", "drag harrow" can last several hours. On a body languor spreads, dreams replace one another. This condition of quiet rest and languor, hand and leg heavy. The person slow-moving and sluggish, usually sits aside and is silent, indulging in the imaginations. Pupils of the patient are narrowed, do not react to light, arterial pressure is reduced. At this stage addicts want to remain alone with the feelings. Patients test a condition of joy, there is "a feeling of omnipotence and boundlessness", the movements seem exact, muscles relax, on all body pleasant languor spreads. The patient feels uniform with the world around, everything is penetrated by sense and love, i.e. the nirvanoobrazny state is observed. At codeine reception this phase is characterized by motive revival, risibility, good mood. The person can loudly speak, the speech very bystry and inconsistent.
After that the intoxication termination stage is observed, appears signs of apathy and fatigue, the world becomes gray and dim, the feeling of alarm gradually increases. There is desire "to be caught up", that is to accept one more dose. The person can oversleep several hours, however the dream does not calm and does not refresh. Soon after awakening depression symptoms, slackness, "goose-pimples" appear.
At overdose of drug of the patient turns from a dream into coma, has an appearance sleeping, but it is impossible to wake him, pupils do not react to light, breath disturbances, it complicated can accrue, deep breaths alternate with breath holding. Death usually comes from paralysis of the center of breath. The overdose usually comes at heroin reception. Sometimes such state comes if the addict himself prepares drug for intravenous administration and is mistaken in a dosage. Sometimes the overdose comes after the abstention period when tolerance decreases, and the addict enters to himself a former dose which becomes too big. By the way, many popular people died not as a result of suicide, and because of overdose since they a narcotic and lethal dose of heroin differ slightly.
If the patient does drugs recently, then in several days the mood increases and if dependence is already created, then in 5-6 hours abstinence signs (withdrawal) can be shown, and dependence on opiates can develop in several weeks of the use of drug. For emergence of dependence on heroin 3-4 injections there are enough, when using morphine — from 10 to 15 injections. Single use of drug of dependence does not cause. Opium drug addiction is an artful disease.
In 7-10 hours after the last use of drug cold, frequent sneezing, perspiration, a body shiver can begin, pulse becomes frequent, heat inflows, pupils extend. The patient becomes alarming, nausea, a headache, an ostealgia and joints ("cramps joints"), increase in pressure, spasms in a stomach can be observed. This state is called opium abstinence, or "physical withdrawal pains" that is connected with a withdrawal of opioids.
Abstinence can last week. For this week the patient sleeps badly, cannot find to himself the place, he has a depression, irritability, angry on all world around, and also strengthening of an inclination to drug that can lead to behavior disorders up to commission of crimes. For the 3rd day the abstinence peak is necessary, and after that symptoms of opium drug addiction gradually weaken. By the end of "withdrawal pains" tolerance to drug falls therefore the minimum dose for receiving "high" can be enough (there occurs "rejuvenation").
The first stage of development of opium drug addiction begins at regular use of drug, during this period a dream superficial, locks are observed. In the absence of a dose reaction in the form of mental disorders is observed within several days. Treatment of opium drug addiction at this stage the most effective, but very seldom is possible to convince the addict of dependence and requirement of treatment. This stage can last up to 4 months (at intravenous injections) up to several years (at the use of poppy straw inside).
The following stage is characterized by the increased tolerance, disappearance of locks, the dream is recovered, and the behavior becomes very sluggish. At this stage signs of physical dependence are brightly noticeable. In 2 months of regular use of drugs the abstinence syndrome which displays are observed in 7-12 hours after the last administration of drug can develop. Opium abstinence without treatment can proceed 5-10 days. Within 1-2 months after the phenomena of abstinence the residual phenomena which are shown in an insuperable inclination to drug, slackness, sleep disorders, tendencies to a suicide can be observed. Patients become angry and angry. The second stage depends on the entered drugs, its doses and features of introduction, and can proceed from 5 to 10 years.
Most of addicts do not live up to the third stage. During this period tolerance falls to one third of a former dose of drug, and it is necessary for achievement of physical comfort approximately for the one tenth part of a constant dose. The abstinence syndrome is not so strongly expressed, but comes rather and can last up to 6 weeks. At this stage addicts most often ask for medical assistance, or try independently to stop doing drugs, replacing them with alcohol or tranquilizers, however most often it does not result in desirable results. There are heavy complications of opium drug addiction.
At the addict the focus of interest is extremely narrowed, interest is attracted only with what is connected with drugs. The patient turns into the disabled person who seldom gets up, becomes the pathological liar, stale and rough the person, can easily go on crimes, and his speech abounds with slangy words. It can "easily put on a needle" the native person. The dose allows them to eat and service itself only. Death usually comes owing to drug overdose, is more rare — from associated diseases. Because of usually hasty administration of drug, addicts usually do not observe the principles of disinfecting of syringes, very often because of it there are infectious diseases of a liver (hepatitises), inflammations of veins (thrombophlebitises), and the most terrible complication — AIDS. There live addicts usually not longer than 30 years, and 35 years are more senior opium addicts practically do not meet.
Mortality of opium addicts is extremely high, and diseases of internals which amplify because of exhaustion of an organism and lack of normal food even more are the reasons of it. All these diseases become aggravated at "withdrawal pains", there can be fluid lungs, become aggravated tuberculosis.
Complications of opium drug addiction are connected with the fact that addicts use kustarno the prepared drugs at which production they can apply various toxic substances which lead to a disease of hepatitises, cirrhosis, dystrophy of kidneys, pneumonia. Opiates cause oppression of TsNS, and drugs enter interaction with receptors of neurons of a brain neurotransmitters, the pains eliminating feeling. Opioids, influencing these receptors, begin to produce feelings of pleasure, and also reduce tension.
Opium addicts are easily recognized by outward, they are pale, skin dry, an icteric shade what is usually observed at liver diseases. Veins after injections look as thick plaits, their sensitivity, and sometimes and an obliteration of a course of veins, phlebitis decreases. Changes of mentality are especially noticeable at the long use of drugs, the adynamy and falling of energy potential are observed.