- Psychosis symptoms
- Psychosis reasons
- Treatment of Psychosis
Psychosis (other - Greek — mental derangement; from ψυχή — soul, mind, and-ωσις — the broken state) — disturbance of any adaptation of mental activity of the person. Psychotic frustration is a collective name of group of the diverse mental disorders which are followed by productive psychopathological symptomatology — nonsense, hallucinations, pseudohallucinations, depersonalization, derealizatsiy.
Psychoses are the expressed forms of mental disorders at which mental activity of the patient differs in sharp discrepancy of surrounding reality, reflection of the real world is roughly distorted that is shown in behavior disorders and manifestation in psychosis unusual for it it is normal of pathological symptoms and syndromes (disorders of perception, memory, thinking, affectivity and another). Psychosis does not generate the new phenomena, and represents result of loss of activity of the highest levels.
The person who suffers from psychosis undergoes a number of considerable changes in behavior, thinking and emotions. Loss of normal perception of the real world is the cornerstone of these metamorphoses. The person ceases to realize the events and cannot estimate severity of changes in the mentality. Because of depression of the consciousness patients, as a rule, persistently resist hospitalization. Also psychoses in most cases are followed by hallucinations and crazy statements.
Psychosis can arise for many reasons of various character. It is accepted to subdivide psychosis origins on internal and external. At influence of external factors exogenous psychosis develops. Treat the external reasons of psychosis: various infections (syphilis, tuberculosis, flu, typhus and so on), alcohol, narcotic substances, industrial poisons, and also stress or severe psychoinjury. Among external origins of psychoses first place is won by alcohol, abusing which it is possible to get alcoholic psychosis.
If the reason of psychosis is covered in the person, then endogenous psychosis develops. In most cases disturbances of a nervous system and endocrine balance can be a root of such psychosis. Endogenous psychoses are connected with age changes in an organism (hydrocianic or senile psychosis), they can be a consequence of a hypertension, atherosclerosis of vessels of a brain, and also schizophrenia. The course of endogenous psychosis differs in duration and tendency to a recurrence. Psychosis is a difficult state and sometimes happens it is impossible to establish what caused its emergence, the internal or external reasons. External influence can be the first push, later which the internal problem joined. In special group allocate senile psychoses. They arise usually after 60 years and are shown by various endomorphic disturbances and conditions of stupefaction. At senile psychosis total weak-mindedness does not develop.
On features of a current and emergence allocate reactive and acute psychoses. Reactive psychoses belong to temporary reversible mental disorders which arise under the influence of any mental injury. Acute psychosis arises suddenly and very quickly develops, for example, at unexpected news of loss of the native person, loss of property and so on.
Treatment of Psychosis:
At reactive psychoses it is necessary to eliminate first of all where it is possible, an etiology – a psychogenic situation. Affective and shock reaction if it does not pass into other state, does not demand medical assistance. At other types of psychoses the fastest hospitalization of the patient as at psychosis he does not control the acts is required and can do unconsciously harm to people around or itself.
Therapeutic tactics has to be by all means clinically proved, that is there has to be correctly made diagnosis, and also sharpness of a state, psychopathological symptomatology, specific features of the identity of the patient and his general physical state is defined.
1) Medicamentous therapy. Treatment of psychosis goes using psychotropic drugs, most often neuroleptics, tranquilizers, fortifying drugs and antidepressants also sometimes are used. Now the set of medicines which are capable to affect certain types and groups of psychosis very selectively is created. If psychosis is a consequence of intoxication, then use drugs which promote clarification of an organism.
Medicines are appointed in an individual order and only by the specialist. At appointment the age of the patient, the psychosis reason, existence of other diseases and contraindications is always considered. As a rule, at a condition of excitement give tranquilizers in injections (Seduxenum) and neuroleptics (Triphtazinum and aminazine). The crazy ideas also stop neuroleptics (Stelazinum, a haloperidol, этаперазин). Situational depression means reception of antidepressants (gerfonat, amitriptyline, Pyrazidolum). Medicamentous therapy has to have dynamic character, that is depend on a stage of a disease and on change of a condition of the patient.
2) Psychological rehabilitation. Psychological rehabilitation can increase efficiency of medicamentous therapy. At treatment the main task of the psychiatrist – to find contact with the patient and to put some idea to it about fast recovery, and also to explain to him that drugs do not do to its organism harm. As a rule, are obliged to guarantee to the patient anonymity of his treatment. Good result at treatment of psychosis gives complex treatment: drugs in the duet with psychological rehabilitation. The rehabilitation course of occupations includes as well the training occupations.
The patient it is necessary to teach to react in a different way to the world around and to develop at it new forms of behavior in life. After rehabilitation, having psychosis has to it is equal to feel in society, to go to shops, to watch the hygiene and so on. The psychotherapy will help concerns to itself better to those people who have feeling of the inferiority because of the mental disease, and also that who in every possible way denies existence of a disease. The main element of social rehabilitation is direct participation in work of groups of mutual support with similar patients who know and understand that it means to be not such as all.
3) Physiotherapeutic methods. In treatment of psychoses also very widely use various physiotherapeutic procedures – an electrosleep, sanatorium treatment, physiotherapy exercises, acupuncture, work therapy and so on. The physical therapy at psychosis removes an emotional overstrain, exhaustion, increases working capacity, improves a metabolism.
4) Electroconvulsive therapy. This method of treatment of psychosis consists in calling in the artificial way of convulsive attacks by influence of alternating electric current. The effect of a method is connected with immediate effect of current on the subcrustal centers of a brain and exchange processes in a nervous system.