- Reasons of cognitive disturbances
Cognitive disturbances are a decrease in memory, intellectual working capacity and other cognitive functions in comparison with the initial level (individual norm). Cognitive (cognitive) functions are called the most difficult functions of a brain by means of which process of rational knowledge of the world is carried out and purposeful interaction with it is provided: perception of information; processing and analysis of information; storing and storage; exchange of information and creation and implementation of the action program.
Cognitive disturbances are polyetiological states: can be their reasons a large number various on an etiology and a pathogeny of diseases (frustration neurologic, mental, etc.).
Allocate easy, moderate and heavy cognitive disturbances. Historically problems of cognitive frustration were studied preferential within dementia (the terms "dementia", "weak-mindedness" mean the heaviest cognitive disturbances leading to disadaptation in everyday life). Only afterwards much attention began to be paid as well to less expressed frustration.
Moderate cognitive disturbances (English mild cognitive impairment, MCI) represent mono - or the multifunctional cognitive frustration which are obviously beyond age norm, but not limiting independence and independence that is not defiant disadaptations in everyday life. Moderate cognitive disturbances, as a rule, are reflected in complaints of an individual and attract attention people around; can interfere with the most irregular shapes of intellectual activity. Prevalence of moderate cognitive disturbances among elderly persons reaches, according to researches, 12 — 17%. The syndrome of moderate cognitive disturbances occurs among neurologic patients in 44% of cases.
According to criteria of MKB-10 diagnosis of moderate cognitive frustration requires existence of the complaint of the patient to increased fatigue when performing mental work, decrease in memory, attention or ability to training which do not reach dementia degree have in a basis the organic nature and are not connected with a delirium.
At easy cognitive disturbances indicators of psychometric scales can remain within average age norm or deviate from it slightly, however patients realize decrease in cognitive abilities in comparison with premorbidal level and express concern about it. Easy cognitive disturbances are reflected in complaints of the patient, but do not draw to themselves the attention of people around; do not cause difficulties in everyday life, even in its most irregular shapes. Population the research of prevalence of easy cognitive disturbances was not conducted so far, however it is possible to assume that their prevalence does not concede prevalence of moderate cognitive disturbances.
Reasons of cognitive disturbances:
There are several tens of nosological forms within which cognitive disturbances develop. Both primary diseases of a brain, and various somatoneurologic and mental disorders which are negatively influencing cognitive functions belong to these nosological forms.
Can be the main reasons for cognitive disturbances:
Dementia with Levi's little bodies
Fronto-temporalnaya Degeneration (FTD)
The progressing nadjyaderny paralysis
Chorea of Gentington
Other degenerative diseases of a brain
Vascular diseases of a brain
Heart attack of a brain of "strategic" localization
Chronic cerebral ischemia
Effects of hemorrhagic damage of a brain
Combined vascular damage of a brain
The mixed (vascular and degenerative) cognitive disturbances
Distireoidny (hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis).
Deficiental states (deficit of B1, B12, folic acid, proteins).
Industrial and household intoxications
Iatrogenic cognitive disturbances (use of cholinolytics, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, neuroleptics, lithium salts, etc.)
Neuroinfections and demyelinating diseases
The HIV-associated encephalopathy
Spongy encephalitis (Kreyttsfeldt's disease — Jacoba)
The progressing panencephalites
Effects of acute and subacute meningoentsefalit
The progressing paralysis
The progressing dizimunny multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Normotensive (arezorbtivny) hydrocephaly