- Psychopathy symptoms
- Psychopathy reasons
- Treatment of the Psychopathy
Psychopathy - resistant anomaly of character. The persons since youth having a number of features which distinguish them from normal people call psychopathic and disturb them without serious consequences for themselves and others to adapt to the environment. Pathological qualities inherent in them represent constant, inborn properties of the personality which, though can amplify or develop during life in a certain direction, are not exposed, nevertheless, to a little sharp changes. Psychopathies represent area between a mental disease and health, i.e. are borderline cases. Inferiority (insufficiency) emotionally - the strong-willed sphere and thinking is characteristic of psychopaths, however. without an outcome in weak-mindedness. At collision with psychopaths an impression of immaturity, childishness because of certain defects of the mental sphere (partial infantility) is made. Immaturity of mentality is shown in the increased suggestibility, tendency to exaggerations and excessive imaginations at hysterical subjects; in emotional instability – at affective (cycloid) and excitable; in weakness of a will - at unstable; in unripe, noncritical thinking - at paranoiac psychopaths. In spite of the fact that psychopathic features of character, are quite invariable in itself, they create especially favorable circumstances for pathological reactions to mental injuries, on excessively severe conditions of life, on somatopathies.
Asthenic type. The increased shyness, shyness, indecision, an impressionability are characteristic of psychopathic persons of this circle since the childhood. They are especially lost in an unfamiliar situation and new conditions, having at the same time feeling of own inferiority. Hypersensitivity, "mimoznost" is shown as concerning mental irritants, and exercise stresses.
Quite often they do not take out a type of blood, sharp temperature drops, painfully react to roughness and tactlessness, but their reaction of discontent can be expressed in silent sensitivity or grumbling. They often have various vegetative frustration: headaches, unpleasant feelings in heart, gastrointestinal disturbances, perspiration, a bad dream.
They are quickly exhausted, inclined to fixing on the health.
Psychasthenic type. The expressed indecision, uncertainty in itself and tendency to constant doubts are inherent to persons of this type. Psikhasteniki are easily vulnerable, timid, shy and painfully ambitious. The aspiration to continuous introspection and self-checking, tendency to the abstract, torn-off from real life logical constructions, persuasive doubts, fears is characteristic of them. For psikhastenik any changes in lives, disturbance of usual way (change of work, the residence, etc.) are difficult, it causes in them strengthening of uncertainty and alarming fears. At the same time they executive, disciplined, are quite often pedantic and importunate. They can be good deputies, but can never work at senior positions. Need of adoption of the independent decision and manifestation of an initiative for them are pernicious. High level of claims and lack of sense of reality promote a decompensation of such persons.
Schizoid type. The identity of this type differ in isolation, reserve, isolation from reality, tendency to internal processing of the experiences, dryness and coldness in the relations with close people. Emotional disharmony is characteristic of schizoid psychopaths: a combination of hypersensitivity, vulnerability, an impressionability - and emotional coldness and estrangement from people ("a tree and glass"). Such person is released from reality, his life is directed to the maximum self-satisfaction without aspiration to glory and material welfare. His hobbies are unusual, original, "non-standard". Among them there are a lot of persons who are engaged in art, music, theoretical sciences. In life they are usually called odd fellows, originals. Their judgments of people are categorical, unexpected and are even unpredictable. At work they are often uncontrollable since they work, proceeding from own ideas of values in life. However, in certain areas where art extravagance and endowments, a thinking non-standard, symbolism is required, they can reach much. They have no constant attachments, family life usually does not develop due to the lack of a community of interests.
However, they are ready to self-sacrifice for the sake of some abstract concepts, the imagined ideas. Such person can be absolutely indifferent to sick mother, but will call at the same time for assistance starving at the other end of the world.
Passivity and divergence in the solution of household problems is combined at schizoid personalities with an ingenuity, enterprise and persistence on achievement of the purposes, especially significant for them (for example, scientific work, a collecting).
Paranoiac type. The main feature of psychopathic persons of this circle is tendency to formation of the supervaluable ideas which form by 20-25 years. However, already since the childhood such traits of character as obstinacy, linearity, an unilaterality of interests and hobbies are inherent to them. They are sensitive, vindictive, self-confident and very sensitive to ignoring of their opinion by people around. Constant aspiration to self-affirmation, the categorical categoriality of judgments and acts, egoism and extreme self-confidence create the soil for the conflicts with people around. With age personal features usually amplify. The Zastrevayemost on certain thoughts and offenses, rigidity, conservatism, "fight for justice" are a basis for formation of the dominating (supervaluable) ideas concerning emotionally significant experiences. The supervaluable ideas, unlike crazy, are based on the real facts and events, are specific according to contents, however judgements at the same time are based on subjective logic, superficial and unilateral assessment of the reality corresponding to confirmation собствен - ache the points of view. Invention, a reformatorstvo can be the maintenance of the supervaluable ideas. Non-recognition of advantages and merits of the paranoiac personality leads to collision with people around, the conflicts which, in turn, can become the real soil for litigious behavior. "Fight for justice" in such cases consists in infinite complaints, letters to different instances, judicial proceedings. Activity and persistence of the patient in this fight cannot break either a request, or belief, nor even threats. For similar persons also the ideas of jealousy, the hypochiondrial ideas can represent supervaluable value (fixing on own health with continuous circulation on medical institutions with the requirements of additional consultations, inspections, the newest methods of treatment which do not have real justification).
Excitable type. The leading lines of excitable persons are extreme irritability and excitability, the explosibility reaching attacks of anger, rage, and reaction does not correspond to irritant force. After fit of anger or aggressive acts patients quickly "depart", regret for the incident, but in the corresponding situations arrive also. Such people are dissatisfied with everything eternally, look for reasons for cavils, enter disputes at the slightest pretext, showing excessive fervor and trying to outvoice interlocutors. Lack of flexibility, obstinacy, conviction in the correctness and the constant fight for justice which is coming down finally to fight for the rights and respect for personal egoistical interests result in their unsociability in collective, to the frequent conflicts in a family and at work. One of options of an excitable psychopathy is the epileptoidny type. Such qualities as sugariness, flattery, hypocrisy, tendency to the use in a conversation of diminutive-hypocoristic words are characteristic of people with this type of the personality, along with viscosity, a zastrevayemost, rancor. Besides excessive pedantry, accuracy, authoritativeness, egoism and dominance of gloomy gloomy mood do them intolerable in life and at work. They are uncompromising - either love, or hate, and surrounding, especially close people, usually suffer both from their love, and with the hatred accompanied with vindictiveness. In certain cases into the forefront disturbances of inclinations in the form of an alcohol abuse, as drugs (remove stress), the aspirations to be on the tramp act. Hazardous players and zapoyny drunkards, sexual perverts and murderers occur among psychopaths of this circle.
Hysterical type. Thirst of recognition, i.e. aspiration to attract by all means attention people around is most characteristic of hysterical persons. It is shown in their demonstrativeness, theatricality, exaggeration and embellishment of the experiences. Their acts are expected outer effect if only to strike surrounding, for example, with unusually bright outward, storminess of emotions (delights, sobbings, hand-wringing), by stories about unusual adventures, inhuman sufferings. Sometimes patients to attract attention, do not stop before a lie, self-accusations, for example, attribute themselves crimes which were not made. Such people are called pathological liars (Myunkhauzen's syndrome). Mental infantility (immaturity) is characteristic of hysterical persons that is shown also in emotional reactions, both in judgments, and in acts. Their feelings are superficial, unstable. External manifestations of emotional reactions are demonstrative, teatralna, do not correspond to the reason which caused them. Frequent mood swings, bystry change of likes and dislikes are characteristic of them. Hysterical types differ in the increased suggestibility and autosuggestibility therefore constantly play some role, imitate the personality who struck them. If such patient is hospitalized, then he can copy symptoms of diseases of other patients who are together with it in chamber.
The art type of thinking is inherent to hysterical persons. Their judgments are extremely contradictory, often have under themselves no real soil. Instead of logical judgment and sober assessment of the facts, their thinking is based on direct impressions and own inventions and imaginations. Psychopaths of a hysterical circle seldom achieve success in creative activity or scientific work since interferes with them the unrestrained aspiration to be the focus of attention, mental immaturity, an egocentrism.
Affective type. Persons with various, konstitutsionalno caused, mood level treat this type. Persons with constantly lowered mood make group of gipotimny (depressive) psychopaths. These are always gloomy, sad, all dissatisfied and unsociable people. In work they are excessively conscientious, accurate, executive since they in everything are ready to see complications and failures. Pessimistic assessment of the present and the corresponding view of the future, in combination with the lowered self-assessment are characteristic of them. They are sensitive to troubles, are capable to empathy, but the feelings try to hide from people around. In a conversation are reserved and laconic, are afraid to express the opinion. It seems to them that they are always not right, look for in all the guilt and insolvency. Gipertimny persons, unlike gipotimny, differ in constantly increased mood, activity and optimism. These are sociable, brisk, talkative people. In work they are enterprising, initiative, full of the ideas, but their tendency to adventurism and inconsistency harm in achievement of a goal. Temporary failures do not upset them, they with tireless energy get down again to business. Excessive self-confidence, revaluation of own opportunities, activity on the verge of the law often complicates their life. Such persons are inclined to a lie, a non-obligation at execution of promises. Due to the raised sexual inclination are not legible in acquaintances, enter precipitate intimate relationships. Persons with emotional instability, i.e. with continuous mood swings, treat cycloid type. The mood them changes from lowered, sad, to raised, joyful. The periods of bad or good mood of different duration, from several hours to several days, even weeks. Their state and activity change according to change of mood.
Unstable (weak-willed) type. People of this type differ in the raised podchinyaemost to external influences. These are the weak-willed, easily inspired, "spineless" persons who are easily coming under influence of other people. All their life is defined not by purposes, but external, accidental circumstances. They quite often get to the bad company, become an inveterate drunkard, become addicts, swindlers. At work such people are optional, undisciplined. On the one hand, they all make promises and try to please, but the slightest external circumstances unsettle them. They constantly need control, the authoritative management. In favorable conditions they can well work and lead the correct life.
Current of psychopathies. Psychopathies, unlike psychoses, do not belong to the progreduated (progressing) diseases. However, such statics of psychopathies is conditional. It is fair concerning preservation of unity of the personality. The personality depending on external conditions and influence of other factors can be adapted (compensated) or deadapted (dekompensirovanny). Compensation of the psychopathic personality is carried out in two ways. At the first under the influence of favorable social conditions there is a smoothing of pathological traits of character. The second way is directed to development of secondary psychopathic lines for adaptation to the environment (overcompensation). Disturbance of social adaptation happens, as a rule, under the influence of external factors (the psychoinjuring situations, somatopathies, social conditions), and the decompensating factors have to be significant for this personality. For example, the conflict in a family will be the significant moment for the excitable psychopath and will not exert any decompensating impact on a schizoid personality. The decompensation represents usually expressed strengthening of personal features. So for example, depressions arise at gipotimny or cycloid persons, hysterical reactions more often - at hysterical psychopaths, the idea of jealousy or barratry - at paranoiac. There can be reactions which are not corresponding to the nature of a psychopathia contrast to type of the personality. So, excitable have asthenic reactions, at hysterical - depressive. It occurs usually in the conditions of the difficult psychoinjuring situation (death of the loved one, a desperate life situation, etc.). In such cases there can be shock reactions and reactive psychoses (see).
The decompensation of psychopathies usually occurs during the periods of hormonal reorganization in an organism. The most significant in this plan are the pubertal (teenage) age and the period of involution (klimakteriya-at women). Besides, the point of characterologic features at women is observed during pregnancy, especially in its first half, after abortions, unsuccessful childbirth, before periods.
Patokharakteralogichesky development of the personality, unlike psychopathies, is result of the wrong education in a family, long influence of the adverse social and psychoinjuring factors, and the psychogenic factor is the basic. For example, in the conditions of constant suppression, humiliation and frequent punishments such traits of character as shyness, indecision, shyness, uncertainty in themselves form. Sometimes in response to constant roughness, callousness, a beating (in families of alcoholics) there is also an excitability, an explosibility with aggression expressing psychologically defense reaction of a protest. If the child grows in a situation of excessive adoration, admiration, praise when all his desires and whims are granted, then such lines of the hysterical personality as egoism, demonstrativeness, self-admiration, emotional instability in the absence of an initiative and purposes in life form. And if it besides - the ordinary personality who does not have actually the sung talents, then he has to ego-trip and deserve recognition of people around in other ways (outward, unusual acts, writing, other than others, about himself different stories, etc.). It is sometimes difficult to distinguish an inborn psychopathy from patokharakterologichesky development of the personality especially as and when forming an inborn psychopathy external factors play not the last role.
Inborn inferiority of a nervous system which can arise under the influence of hereditary factors, owing to pre-natal impact of vrednost on a fruit, as a result of birth trauma and a serious illness of early children's age is the cornerstone of a psychopathy. In formation of a psychopathy adverse influence of external environment (the wrong education, mental injuries) is of great importance. However, true psychopathies ("nuclear") have constitutional character (inborn). In those cases where the leading role in formation of pathological character belongs to external factors, it is necessary to speak about patokharakterologichesky development of the personality.
Treatment of the Psychopathy:
Psychopathic persons in treatment do not need compensation stage. In prevention of a decompensation major importance is attached to measures of social influence: the correct education in a family, school, the measures for adequate employment and social adaptation corresponding to a mental warehouse of the personality and I.Q. At a decompensation are used as methods of psychotherapeutic influence (explanatory psychotherapy, an autogenic training, hypnosis, family psychotherapy), and drug treatment.
Psychotropic drugs are appointed individually taking into account psychopathological reactions and personal features. At persons with preferential emotional fluctuations successfully apply antidepressants, at the expressed hysterical reactions - small doses of neuroleptics (aminazine, Triphtazinum), at conditions of malignancy, aggression - also neuroleptics (Tisercinum, a haloperidol). At the expressed behavior deviations "proofreaders of behavior" - neuleptil, сонапакс successfully are used. Heavy asthenic reactions demand purpose of stimulators (Sydnocarbum) or natural drugs with a soft promoting effect (a ginseng, the Chinese magnolia vine, a wolfberry, левзея, элеутерококк, etc.). Selection of drugs, doses and ways of their introduction osushchestvltsya by the psychiatrist. For a decompensation temporary disability decides on execution of the sick-list. Patients are transferred to disability extremely seldom, under the aggravating circumstances. Forecast in general favorable.