- Sneezing symptoms
- Sneezing reasons
- Sneezing treatment
Sneezing (Latin of sternutatio) — the protective instinctive reflex of the person and the highest animals providing removal from upper respiratory tracts of dust, slime and other irritating agents by the forced exhalation, is preferential through a nasopharynx, after a short deep breath. Unlike cough, when sneezing language nestles on a soft palate therefore the forced exhalation is carried out through a nose.
As process, is as follows:
* the previous feeling of tickling in a nose
* deep breath and filling of lungs air
* the raising of a soft palate, reduction of front handles of a pharynx, prilegany backs of the tongue to a hard palate isolating a nasopharynx and an oral cavity, closing of eyes
* reduction of intercostal muscles, a diaphragm and direct muscles of a stomach, throat muscles (with closing of a glottis) that creates the increased intrathoracic and intra belly pressure
* vigorous exhalation with opening of a nasopharynx
Pressure of expired air when sneezing can exceed 100 mm of mercury., air passing speed outside at the level of a glottis reaches 50 — 120 m/s, and the volume speed of an air flow — to 12 p/a. The air flow passing through nasal and oral cavities takes droplets of slime and saliva which in the sprayed look are carried on distance to 2-3 m.
Sneezing preferential arises at irritation of a mucous membrane of a nasal cavity or a nasopharynx dust agents (down, wool, house dust and др), allergens and other irritating substances, and also at artificial mechanical irritation. Among allergens, most often provoke sneezing: pollen, mold, scales of leather of animals and part of dust. Tobacco smoke and various perfumery products belong to substances most of which often are irritants. Sneezing can also arise at infectious diseases and diseases of upper respiratory tracts
Also sneezing can be provoked by fast changings of ambient temperature, for example at an entrance of the person to the room with low air temperature after stay in conditions of high temperature of the environment. Some persons note sneezing at a view of bright light, at a contact or a bruise of a nose.
On the eve of childbirth a number of women often complain of sneezing and swelling of a mucous membrane of a nose — the so-called rhinitis of pregnant women connected with hormonal changes in the woman in labor organism.
Sneezing is the protective reflex providing removal from upper respiratory tracts of foreign substances. At the same time is an important symptom of a number of diseases (acute respiratory and allergic). Arises also at effect of the irritating toxic agents (a lewisite, Arminum, etc.). When sneezing there is a distribution in the airborne way of causative agents of many infections (flu, measles, chicken pox, etc.)
Treatment of a basic disease is carried out.