- Balanthidiasis symptoms
- Balanthidiasis reasons
- Treatment of the Balanthidiasis
Balanthidiasis - the parasitic disease which is characterized by a canker of a large intestine, a heavy current and high mortality at late begun therapy.
Pathological process develops as a result of reproduction of parasites in tissues of a large intestine, sometimes in a distal part of a small bowel owing to what ulcers are formed. On a clinical current the acute and chronic (recurrent) balanthidiasis differs. Most often its chronic form meets. Both an acute, and chronic balanthidiasis can proceed or in the form of balantidny dysentery with rapid development of a fetid bloody mucous diarrhea, or in the form of balantidny colitis with a semi-fluid fecal mass and impurity of slime, but without blood. The chronic course of a disease is characterized by alternation of aggravations, a little different from acute forms, with the periods of remissions during which diarrhea can not be absolutely. The acute forms of balantidny dysentery which were not exposed to timely specific therapy differ in very high lethality.
In the cases which are not complicated by a bacterial infection, a balanthidiasis, its especially acute forms can not cause fervescences. Balanthidiasis complications in the form of defeat of other bodies, except intestines, are exclusively rare.
The incubation interval lasts 10-15 days (from 5 to 30) more often. Clinically the balanthidiasis can proceed in acute and chronic forms. Allocate also latent balanthidiasis (carriage) and the combined forms of a balanthidiasis (with an amebiasis, a shigellosis, etc.). On weight of a current medium-weight and severe forms prevail. Acute forms of a balanthidiasis remind a coloenteritis or colitis on the manifestations. There are symptoms of the general intoxication: weakness, a headache, a loss of appetite, at a half of patients moderate fever, sometimes with a fever. Signs of damage of intestines are at the same time observed: abdominal pains, a diarrhea, a meteorism, when involving in process of a rectum are possible tenesmus. In Calais there can be impurity of slime and blood. Quite often note a dry coated tongue, a spasm and morbidity of a large intestine, the liver is increased and painful. At a rektoromanoskopiya reveal focal infiltrative and ulcer process. At a blood analysis - moderate anemia, an eosinophilia, decrease in total quantity of protein and albumine, SOE is moderately increased. At a heavy current of an acute balanthidiasis high fever is noted, symptoms of intoxication are expressed sharply (a fever, nausea, vomiting, a headache). Chair to 20 times a day with impurity of slime and blood, with a putrefactive smell. Patients quickly grow thin, in a week the cachexia can already develop. There can be signs of irritation of a peritoneum. At a rektoromanoskopiya extensive ulcer changes come to light. In blood hypochromia anemia, a neutrophylic leukocytosis.
Acute forms of a disease are characterized by fever, symptoms of the general intoxication and signs of damage of intestines (an abdominal pain, a diarrhea, a meteorism, tenesmus - false desires to defecation are possible). In excrements impurity of slime and blood is noted. The spasm and morbidity of a large intestine, increase in a liver are characteristic. At a rektoromanoskopiya focal infiltrative and ulcer process comes to light. At a heavy current the general intoxication, high fever, a chair to 20 times a day with impurity of slime and blood with a putrefactive smell are noted. Patients quickly grow thin, symptoms of irritation of a peritoneum sometimes appear. At a rektoromanoskopiya establish extensive cankers.
At a chronic balanthidiasis symptoms of intoxication are expressed poorly, body temperature normal, a chair to 2-3 times a day, liquid, with slime, sometimes with blood impurity. At palpation morbidity preferential in the field of the blind and ascending gut is noted. At a rektoromanoskopiya there can be typical ulcer changes. As confirmation of the diagnosis serves detection of parasites in Calais.
Balantidium coli belongs to type of protozoa (Protozoa), the Ciliophora subtype, the class Ciliata. This infusorian was described for the first time by the Swedish scientist of Malmsten in 1857. Ability to cause her disease of the person was proved by N. S. Solovyov in 1901. The activator is the largest among pathogenic intestinal protozoa. The sizes of a vegetative form of 50-80 microns in length and 35-60 microns width, diameter of a cyst about 50 microns, a surface of a vegetative form it is covered with cilia by means of which the movement is carried out. In external environment of a cyst keep a zhiznesposposobnost during 3-4 weeks. It is considered that at the person and a pig one type of balantidiya parasitizes.
Epidemiology. The disease comes to light rather seldom. However contamination of the population can be quite high. So, in rural areas it is infested by balantidiya of 4-5% of the population. The persons contacting to pigs being natural carriers of balantidiya are especially often infected. In the centers infection can occur at contact with patients with a balanthidiasis. Diseases meet, as a rule, in the form of sporadic cases.
Treatment of the Balanthidiasis:
The drugs directed to elimination of parasites apply in the form of 2-3 five-day cycles. Appoint Monomycinum on 0,15 g 4 times a day, Oxytetracyclinum on 0,4 g 4 times a day, metronidazole on 0,5 g 3 times a day. The interval between cycles makes 5 days.
The forecast at modern therapy favorable. Without use of antiparasitic therapy mortality reached 10-12%.