- Description of a hemophilic infection
- Reasons of a hemophilic infection
- Symptoms of a hemophilic infection
- Treatment of a hemophilic infection
- Vaccination against a hemophilic infection
Description of a hemophilic infection:
The hemophilic infection concerns to group of the infectious diseases caused by bacteria, and arising only at people. This infection is widespread around the world, it was found in nasal allocations more, than at 90% of healthy people in the general population of the population.
Reasons of a hemophilic infection:
The special hemophilic stick - a bacterium which is capable to extend from upper respiratory tracts where it usually is, in a chest cavity, a throat or a middle ear becomes the infectious agent of a hemophilic infection. Characteristic symptoms of this infection is the acute inflammation with exudate. At the same time any bodies can be surprised, but respiratory tracts are most often involved. The microorganism can be transferred from the person to the person or at contact with nasal allocations and other liquids of a body. Most often cases of incidence are registered at the end of winter or in the early spring.
The major factor influencing probability of infection is the age: the most vulnerable are children aged from six months up to four years. The hemophilic infection is a main reason for meningitis at children, and the pneumonia reason, the second for prevalence. In developing countries from a hemophilic infection 500000 death a year among children under five years are registered.
Symptoms of a hemophilic infection:
The hemophilic stick can cause specific meningitis, infectious arthritis, conjunctivitis, cellulitis, an epiglottiditis.
The bacterial sepsis caused by a hemophilic stick is potentially fatal disease at newborns. The child can catch when passing in patrimonial ways of mother or at hit of an infection from the environment. Quite often this infection leads to inflammatory process of an eye (conjunctivitis) at newborns. Symptoms of sepsis can include feverish reaction, concern, problems with food, breath disturbances, pallor or a dermahemia, drowsiness. Premature births is the most significant risk factor for a hemophilic infection at newborns.
Potentially deadly display of a hemophilic infection is the epiglottiditis. Though children are more inclined to development of an epiglottiditis, it can arise as well at the adult. When the epiglottis (the gate which covers a trachea during swallowing of food) is infected, it can bulk up to such an extent that blocks respiratory tracts. Symptoms of an epiglottiditis include sharp temperature increase, hypersalivation, feeling of a lump in a throat and a stridor (a high-pitched, noisy sound of breath). If the doctor examines the patient's throat with the laryngoscope, puffiness and reddening of an epiglottis is noticeable.
At children from 9 months to 4 years the greatest danger is constituted by defeat by a hemophilic bacterium of a meninx (hemophilic meningitis). Together with damage of upper airways fever, a loss of appetite is observed, vomiting, a headache joins, the patient feels neck or spin pain. In the absence of treatment the child has convulsive attacks, to develop shock or a coma.
The hemophilic infection is the second most common cause of infections of a middle ear and sinusitis at children's age. Sinusitis is shown by fever, pain, an unpleasant smell from a mouth and cough. Children can also have the infectious arthritises caused by a hemophilic stick. Most often large joints are surprised.
The diagnosis usually is based on a combination of symptoms of the patient and results of a blood analysis, a cultural method, or tests for identification of antigens.
The diagnosis of a hemophilic infection is confirmed with laboratory researches. This bacterium can be cultivated on a chocolate agar or certain cultures of blood or other liquids in an organism. Also tests for identification of antigens can be used. These tests include reaction latex of agglutination and an electrophoresis.
Other researches of laboratory which are connected with a hemophilic infection include diagnosis of anemia (low level of red blood cells) and decrease in number of white blood cells at children with heavy infections. At adults abnormally high level of white blood cells often is defined.
Treatment of a hemophilic infection:
As a hemophilic infection are potentially deadly, treatment should be begun, without waiting for results of laboratory tests.
Hemophilic infection treat antibiotics. In hard cases apply ampicillin or cephalosporins of the 3rd generation, for example tsefotaksy or цефтриаксон in the form of intravenous infusions. Patients with more moderate manifestations by infections accept antibiotics in a peroral form (amoxicillin, a tsefaklor, erythromycin or Biseptolum). The patients having an allergy to penicillin usually are given a tsefaklor or Trimethoprimum sulfamethoxazole.
Patients with the hemophilic infection steady against ampicillin, can accept chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol is not the first choice of drug because of its side effects, including influence on marrow cells.
Duration of antibacterial therapy depends on localization and weight of a hemophilic infection. Adults with respiratory infections, or hemophilic pneumonia, usually accept 10 - 14 dnevny course of antibiotics. Meningitis is the indication for a 2-week course of an antibioticotherapia, but for babies there are enough 7 days of reception of antibiotics. Ear infections are treated within 7 - 10 days.
Patients with heavy displays of a hemophilic infection should observe a bed rest. At development of an epiglottiditis the intubation or tracheotomy can be required to hold respiratory tracts open. Surgical treatment for the purpose of removal of the infected liquid from a chest cavity or a cavity of a joint can be the patient with pneumonia, arthritis necessary.
The maintenance therapy also includes monitoring of quantity of uniform elements of blood for the patients using chloramphenicol, ampicillin or other drugs which can influence production of blood cells in marrow.
The forecast of a current and outcome of a hemophilic infection generally depends on its severity and timeliness of treatment. Not the treated hemophilic infection, in particular meningitis, sepsis and an epiglottiditis, has high death rate. Bacterial sepsis at newborns is followed by a lethality in 13-50%. The forecast, as a rule, good for patients with an easy form of an infection who receive adequate therapy.
Vaccination against a hemophilic infection:
There are three various vaccines against a hemophilic infection which are used for immunization of children: PRP-D, HBOC, and PRP-OMP.
PRP-D is used only at children 15 months are more senior. HBOC enter to children at the age of two, four and six months after the child's birth, the booster dose from 15 to 18 months. PRP-OMP enter to children into two and four months, from the third dose at the first birthday of the child. All three vaccines are entered intramusculary. At about 5% of children fever or pain in the field of an injection can develop.