Infectious erythema (fifth disease)
- Reasons of an infectious erythema (fifth disease)
- Symptoms of an infectious erythema (fifth disease)
- Treatment of an infectious erythema (fifth disease)
Infectious erythema – a widespread children's disease. Adults can get sick with it too. The infectious erythema is called still the fifth disease because sometimes rash develops on a face. The disease extends during the sneezing and cough.
As a rule people extend an infectious erythema when they show the symptoms reminding flu and before display of rash. The people suffering from an infectious erythema and from certain problems with blood or weak immune system can extend a disease longer.
Reasons of an infectious erythema (fifth disease):
Development of the fifth disease is caused by a virus of a human parvovirus B19.
Symptoms of an infectious erythema (fifth disease):
Early symptoms of development of an infectious erythema remind flu. After several days there will be rash, and some will have a joint pain. Development of an infectious erythema can be mixed with other diseases at which similar symptoms are shown.
Other diseases on the symptoms reminding the fifth disease.
Development of an infectious erythema can be mixed with other diseases at which similar symptoms are shown, namely:
Viral infections which (clumsy) rubella or scarlet fever cause development of rash, for example.
Allergic reaction which causes development of rash, for example, an allergy to medical supplies or to other drugs.
Diseases which influence joints, for example, arthritis or a system lupus erythematosus.
Symptoms similar to development of flu.
Symptoms of development of an infectious erythema arise in 2 – 3 weeks after influence of a virus. Usually, initial symptoms remind development of flu and can be so insignificant that nobody will notice them. At some people with an infectious erythema symptoms are not shown at all. There can initially be following symptoms:
Cold and the inflamed throat.
Headaches and abdominal cavity pains.
In rare instances there can be an insignificant heat.
Weakness in a body and a joint pain.
Approximately in 7 days after manifestation of the symptoms reminding flu rash can develop though at adults rash develops not so often as at children. At some people rash does not develop rash at all.
If there is rash, then usually it develops according to the predictable plan, passing through two or three stages of development:
Bright red rash develops on cheeks (often cheeks look as if they were beaten), and sometimes rash develops on a forehead and on a chin. This rash usually vanishes in 2 – 5 days.
Rash can develop on a neck, a trunk, a forearm, on an upper knee and on buttocks. Rash begins with round red spots, and then expands, reminding lace. Rash can scratch, especially at children is more senior. The second stage to last week or it is less.
After rash on a body vanishes, it can develop from influence of sunshine, high temperatures or from stressful situations again. This rash usually remains within 1 – 3 weeks. Even if rash repeatedly develops, it does not mean that your state worsens.
The joint pain in hands, wrists, anklebones and legs usually occurs at adults, especially at women. Pains usually last from 1 to 3 weeks though in rare instances pain can longer remain. Usually infectious erythema does not cause constant injury of joints.
At the fifth disease the body for the small period ceases to develop red blood cells. Usually it does not cause considerable problems in the healthy child or the adult. Nevertheless, this disease can make considerable danger to the people having blood diseases, for example, of a crescent and checkered disease or a thalassemia. At such people temporary aplastic crisis which consists in deterioration in the existing aplastic anemia can develop and can continue from 7 to 10 days. At the people suffering from temporary aplastic anemia the state of health can worsen very strongly; can it will be shown such symptoms as heat, apathy, the increased heartbeat, and also hurried breathing.
At people with weak immune system, the patients with the fifth disease, the chronic parvovirus of B19 which can lead to more serious anemia can develop.
Treatment of an infectious erythema (fifth disease):
For ordinary healthy people at a disease of an infectious erythema of rather usual house treatment (including rest, the use of liquid and reception of the anesthetizing drugs). Repeated emergence of rash does not mean that the disease progresses or that the state was aggravated. Often rash can develop from influence of sunshine, high temperatures or from stressful situations again.
For treatment of an infectious erythema do not use antibiotics because the course of a disease is caused by a virus, but not a bacterium.
Treatment for the people who are in group of the increased risk.
Nevertheless, pregnant women and people with the weakened immune system or with blood problems, for example, a sickle cell disease or a thalassemia, are subject to the increased risk of development of complications from the fifth disease. Such people need to be under observation of specialists, and in case of contact with the sick person – they have to seem to the doctor. Sometimes, for elimination of complications there can be a need for hospitalization.
If you are pregnant and were subject to influence of the virus causing the fifth disease, then your doctor can recommend to make blood test to see whether you caught or you developed immunity. If you were infected, then the doctor can recommend frequent sound researches of a fruit throughout all pregnancy.
Prevention of distribution of an infectious erythema.
By the time of emergence of rash, you will not be a carrier of a disease any more. As soon as the child has a rash, he can be returned to school or to kindergarten.
The people who got sick with an infectious erythema including those at whom complications developed, have to take precautionary measures to stop spread of a virus. You have to wash hands often. If people with an infectious erythema are hospitalized, then can isolate them from other patients.
At present vaccines against B19 parvovirus pass tests, and it can become available in the near future.
Treatment at complications for an infectious erythema.
Pregnant women and people with the weakened immune system or with problems with composition of blood, for example, a sickle cell disease or a thalassemia, are subject to the increased risk of development of complications from the fifth disease.
Treatment for pregnant women Seldom or never, at a fruit which was it is infected with a parvovirus of B19 serious anemia and a tumor, or a state under the name a hydramnion can develop. For detection of similar problems behind a fruit and mother it is necessary to observe, conduct attentively a regular research ultrasound. When reveal that at a fruit swelled, a fruit can treat by means of hemotransfusion while the child still is in a womb though usually in it there is no need. Can do to some children who were born at mothers who caught an infectious erythema during pregnancy also hemotransfusion.
Treatment for people who have diseases of blood or the weakened immune system.
To people who have blood diseases causing anemia (for example, a sickle cell disease or a thalassemia) can hemotransfusion is required if the state sharply worsens (short-term aplastic anemia). For prevention of development of persistent infection from a parvovirus of B19 and deep anemia, to people with the weakened immune system can intravenously enter immunoglobulin.