- Polydactylia reasons
- Polydactylia symptoms
- Treatment of a polydactylia
The polydactylia literally means "excess fingers". The additional little finger, or, more rare, an additional finger in the central part of a brush can be observed. The polydactylia is one of the most widespread congenital anomalies of an upper extremity.
When extremities of a fruit begin to develop in mother's womb, they look flat cambers which then are usually divided into five fingers. Genetic anomaly or harmful effects surrounding harm can influence this process therefore the additional finger forms and the polydactylia develops.
Distinguish 3 types of a polydactylia: radial, elbow and central, depending on localization of an additional finger. The elbow polydactylia designates existence of an additional little finger which can have various extent of development, and also is on a thin leg from soft tissues. The central polydactylia assumes existence of an additional finger in the central part of a brush, between a thumb and a little finger.
The polydactylia can be observed at any newborn. The majority of types of a radial polydactylia are not inherited. The post-axial polydactylia ten times meets with a small, underdeveloped additional finger at the Afro-Americans more often, than at white, and is inherited as an autosomal dominant character (that is, there are 50% probability of a polydactylia at children of the diseased). Nevertheless, the post-axial polydactylia with an eumorphic additional finger is equally widespread in all ethnic groups. The central polydactylia is inherited as an autosomal and dominant disease which expressiveness of signs can be more or less heavy in various generations.
The main question at the majority of types of a polydactylia is functioning of an extremity.
Some rare species of a preaksialny polydactylia are connected with other problems, such as diseases of blood, anomaly of heart or craniofacial anomalies. At such option of a polydactylia formation of additional fingers is often observed as on hands, and legs.
Treatment of a polydactylia:
The polydactylia will respond to treatment in the surgical way. At a preaksialny polydactylia treatment consists a finger, reconstruction of skin and soft tissues, sinews, joints, sheaves at a distance. At a post-axial polydactylia when the additional finger is connected to a brush only a myagkotkany stalk, the finger can be removed or by means of insignificant operation or if a stalk rather narrow, by an alloying at children's age. When the additional finger is eumorphic, operation is more difficult and can include reconstruction of soft tissues, sinews, joints and sheaves, as at a preaksialny polydactylia. At last, the central polydactylia demands difficult surgery to recover a brush. Besides, soft tissues, sinews, sheaves and joints have to be reconstructed. In certain cases one operation is required more, than.
At detection of a polydactylia at the child consultation of the surgeon is necessary. In certain cases the diagnosis can be made prenatalno by means of an ultrasonography research. As a rule, no special treatment before operation is required.
Except the surgeon, the child with a polydactylia has to be examined by the pediatrician and the medical geneticist.