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Astrocytoma - the brain tumor arising from astrocytes (star-shaped neurological cells which regulate  composition of intercellular liquid and support neurons). The astrocytoma is a subtype of the tumors of a brain relating to gliomas  is the most widespread tumor of a brain.
On density the astrocytoma practically does not differ from  marrow, has light pink color.  Meets at any age, men at the age of 20-50 years are ill more often. The astrocytoma  can will be shown in any place of a brain, but most often at adults of an astrotsimtom is located in big parencephalons, in children localization, as a rule, in a cerebellum and represents nodular sheaves with small cysts.



Гистологическое строение астроцитомы

Histologic structure of an astrocytoma

Astrocytoma reasons:

The reasons of development of an astrocytoma still are a riddle for doctors and scientists, but in risk group it is possible to carry:
Genetic predisposition;
Influence of radiation on production or in life;
Influence of chemicals and substances of oil processing;
Viruses, with high degree of oncogenicity.

Astrocytoma symptoms:

Symptoms or symptoms of this tumor  depend on its localization, but it is possible to allocate such general symptoms of a disease of an astrocytoma:
General weakness;
Nausea, the vomiting which is especially accruing in the morning;
Deteriorations in sight;
Memory impairment;
Deteriorations in the speech;
Unreasonable change of behavior;
Differences of mood;
Balance loss;
Epileptic attacks;
Jumps of arterial pressure;
As it was written above, signs of an astrocytoma depend on its localization in a brain:
If the astrocytoma  was formed in the right hemisphere -  weakness or paresis in the left leg and a hand is observed.
If the astrocytoma  was formed in the left hemisphere -  weakness or paresis in the right leg and a hand is observed.
In a frontal lobe - changes of character and the personality are observed.
To temporal share -  lacks of coordination, memories, speeches are observed.
In a parietal lobe - small motility, problems with the letter, feelings suffers.
In an occipital share - deteriorations in sight, a hallucination.
In a cerebellum - a lack of coordination and balance when walking.

Proceeding from zlokachestvennost degree,  an astrocytoma to be divided into such types:
Polycytic astrocytoma.
I degree of a zlokachestvennost:
It is called still  a piloidny  astrocytoma - it is a benign tumor with  accurately expressed borders, grows very slowly,  meets at children more often. As a rule, it is localized in a cerebellum and a brainstem. It occupies 10% of incidence from all types of astrocytomas. Will well respond to surgical treatment.
Fibrillar astrocytoma.
II degree of a zlokachestvennost:
The tumor without  clear boundary,  grows slowly, but worse, than the polycytic astrocytoma will respond to surgical treatment.  As a rule, it is observed at the age of 20-30 years.
Anaplastic astrocytoma.
III - I am zlokachestvennost degree:
  The malignant tumor without clear boundary, grows quickly, will badly respond to surgical treatment as burgeons in brain tissue. Age of sick 30-50 years. Preferential men are ill.
IV degree of a zlokachestvennost:
The most malignant tumor. Grows very quickly, will practically not respond to surgical treatment, also burgeons in brain fabric and vyzyavt a brain necrosis. Men at the age of 40-70 years are ill preferential.
Diagnosis of an astrotsyitoma is made by means of (KT) of a computer tomography and  MRT (magnetic and resonant tomography). MRT intensively use pictures during surgical intervention. Is also important to make a new growth puncture (to take samples of fabrics of a tumor) for definition of its degree of a zlokachestvennost.

Treatment of an astrocytoma:

Ways of treatment include surgical removal, radiation therapy, radio surgery, and chemotherapy. The main goal of surgical removal consists in removing as much as possible tumoral fabric, without damaging the brain fabric necessary for neurologic functions (such as ability to speak, go, motor skills, etc.). However, the low-differentiated tumors often have similar to a feeler of structure which interfere in surrounding fabrics, complicating removal of all a tumor. If the tumor cannot be completely removed, an operative measure allows to reduce or control the tumor size. In most cases, surgeons carry out a craniotrypesis for the best access to a tumor.
The purpose of radiotheraphy consists in selectively to kill tumor cells, leaving whole normal brain fabric. At standard external radiotheraphy  repeated processings of an affected area are made by standard doses  of radiation. Each processing causes damage and healthy and normal fabric. At the subsequent processing the majority of normal cells are recovered whereas tumoral are not. This process includes in total 10 - 30 processings, depending on tumor type. This additional processing gives to some patients an opportunity to improve quality and life expectancy.
Radio surgery, or gamma knife - a treatment method which by means of computer calculations focuses radiation bunch on the site of a tumor, minimizing damage of peripheral fabric. The radio surgery can be addition to other methods of treatment, or can represent primary form at certain tumors.
At chemotherapy patients accept the certain drugs developed for destruction of cells of a tumor. Though the chemotherapy can improve the general survival at patients with the most malignant primary tumors of a brain, it occurs only in about 20 percent of cases. The chemotherapy is often appointed to small children instead of radiation therapy as radiation negatively influences the developing brain. The decision on use of this treatment has to be based on the analysis of the state of health of the patient, tumor type, and zlokachestvennost degree. Now the research works including a gene therapy, high-precision radiation therapy, an immunotherapy and new methods of chemotherapy are conducted.

Drugs, drugs, tablets for treatment of the Astrocytoma:

  • Препарат Темозоломид.


    The alkylating means.

    JSC Biocad Russia

  • Препарат Темодал®.


    Antineoplastic drug. The alkylating connection.

    Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. (Merck Sharp and Doum of the Building) USA

  • Препарат Темцитал.


    Antineoplastic drugs. The alkylating connections

    ANSTAR AG (Anstar AG) Switzerland

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