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The birthmarks called in medicine by a nevus represent accumulations of pigment cells which often look as small, dark brown spots. Nevertheless, color scale can be any, can be localized it also in any place.  

Reasons of birthmarks:

Birthmarks arise when melanocytes (pigment cells) accumulate in skin groups. Melanocytes produce melanin, a natural pigment which gives to skin its color. As a rule, melanocytes are distributed evenly on all skin.
Though the majority of birthmarks appear in the childhood and youth, they can continue to appear to middle age. There are also certain periods in life when birthmarks are more inclined to change, for example, they become more dark and more because of hormonal changes which happen at teenage age or during pregnancy.

Symptoms of birthmarks:

The majority of birthmarks are harmless, but in rare instances birthmarks can become malignant. Monitoring of birthmarks and other pigmented educations is an important step in identification of a carcinoma cutaneum, especially malignant melanoma. However, not all melanomas develops from already existing birthmark. Some birthmarks can begin new growth on skin.
Though brown spots are considered as a typiform of birthmarks, birthmarks happen the most various flowers, forms and the sizes:
1. Color. They often have brown color, but actually meet black, red, blue, pink or corporal color of a birthmark.
2. Form. They can differ in a form - from oval to round.
3. Size. They can be of the size of a pin head or rather big, covering all extremity. Averagely, birthmarks reach about 6 mm in length.  
Birthmarks can develop practically in any part of a body, including head skin, in axillary hollows, under nails and between fingers of hands and legs. Most of people have from 10 to 40 birthmarks though their number changes during life. Some birthmarks can disappear with age.

The surface of a birthmark can be smooth or wrinkled, flat or relief. Sometimes the birthmark at first has an appearance of a flat and brown spot, and becomes later than slightly raised and brightens. Some of them can rise so that form "column" which finally can be erased. Other birthmarks can just disappear.

Occasion to see a doctor emergence of new birthmarks can become aged more senior than 30 years. Pay attention if in the field of a birthmark the itch developed, the birthmark became painful or there was bleeding. The special attention is deserved by a situation at which the birthmark changed a form and color, in particular, coloring of the whole birthmark or its part in black color.

The majority of birthmarks are harmless and do not demand special leaving, but at some people birthmarks of a special look which are called a dysplastic nevus develop. They have higher risk of an ozlokachestvleniye.

Birthmarks on bigger risk to become a cancer tumor.
The big birthmarks which are present at the birth. The big birthmarks which are present already at the birth are called  an inborn nevus. These birthmarks have the increased risk of development of a malignant melanoma, a deadly form of a carcinoma cutaneum.
Atypical birthmarks (dysplastic nevus). Birthmarks which I have the size more than 6 mm and differ in irregular shape, are called  an atypical (dysplastic) nevus. These birthmarks, as a rule, hereditary. They often have dark brown the center and differ  in irregularity of borders. A dysplastic nevus represents bigger risk of development of a malignant melanoma.
Numerous birthmarks. Existence of a large number of birthmarks - 20 and more – also indicates the increased risk of development of a melanoma.

Строение родинки

Birthmark structure

Treatment of birthmarks:

At suspicion on malignant process of a birthmark carrying out a biopsy – withdrawal of a sample of fabric for the purpose of a histologic research is necessary.
Removal of birthmarks.
At suspicion on a zlokachestvennost of a birthmark its surgical removal, including the necessary volume of the fabric surrounding a birthmark is necessary. This procedure is usually carried out in an office of the doctor in out-patient conditions, and occupies a short period.  
Surgical excision. This method assumes removal of a birthmark, taking  a part of surrounding healthy fabric, by means of a scalpel. For closing of skin defect seams are used.
Cryolysis.  In this case the doctor will freeze area around a birthmark, and then will remove it. This method is often used for small birthmarks and does not demand suture.

If the remote birthmark arises again, it is necessary to address immediately in the doctor. Also it is worth resolving an issue of removal of a birthmark if its localization gives a considerable inconvenience – in places of friction and irritation, including the areas which are exposed to shaving.

Cosmetic leaving.
These methods can help to hide a birthmark at its cosmetic defect.
For example, correctly imposed make-up will help to hide both a nevus pigmentosus, and birthmarks. The hair growing from a birthmark can be cut off accurately close to its surface, but it is necessary to avoid their plucking out that can damage a birthmark. At major cosmetic defect the birthmark should be removed.
You monitor changes.
Carefully and regularly check the skin. If in a sort there were melanoma cases, do survey once a month. The revealed changes of skin can testify to a melanoma.

Do not forget to check areas which are not affected by sunshine, including head skin, axillary hollows, feet (soles, nails and between fingers), palms and nails, area of generative organs, and skin under a breast (for women). If it is necessary, use a mirror attentively to examine all parts of a body.  

Prevention of a carcinoma cutaneum.
In addition to periodic survey of skin it is possible to take other measures directed to the prevention of a melanoma:  
1. Avoid solar radiation. Try to keep in the background from 10 in the morning to 4 in the evening when ultraviolet rays are most aggressive.
2. Use sunblock cream. For half an hour to an exit to the street apply sunblock cream with a factor of protection against the sun (SPF) not less than 15. Repeat drawing each two hours, especially if you swim or participate in vigorous activity. Also keep in mind that sunblock cream is only one part of the general protection program from the sun.
3. Protect a body clothes – use wide-brimmed hats, long sleeves and other elements of clothes which can help you to avoid harmful effects of UV rays. There are also clothes from the special processed fabric allowing to block UV rays.

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