Chicken pox (Chicken pox)
- Reasons of Vertyany smallpox
- Symptoms of Vertyany smallpox
- Treatment of Vertyany smallpox
Chicken pox (is also called chicken pox) is an infectious disease of children which is shown also at adults.
The incubation interval makes from 10 to 21 days. The period during which the infected people can extend a disease begins in 1-2 days prior to emergence of rash and proceeds until when blisters become covered by a scab that occurs usually within 4-7 days after emergence of the first elements of rash. For this reason doctors recommend to refrain from visit of children's collectives, school and other public places during this period.
Reasons of Vertyany smallpox:
Chicken pox is caused by a virus of chicken pox (the member of family of viruses of herpes) which extends through air or at direct contact with the infected person. The virus causes an itch, bubble rash which usually sticks to about a week, fever and other symptoms. Once the postponed episode of chicken pox leads formation of lifelong immunity. As symptoms of chicken pox are easily recognized and in most cases do not pose themselves hazard to life of the patient, treatment can be almost always carried out in house conditions.
Children have chicken pox generally, however it is noted that the percent of emergence of terrible complications of a disease is much higher at adults. More than a half of all fatal cases from complications of chicken pox occur among adults.
Symptoms of Vertyany smallpox:
Displays of chicken pox begin after an oligosymptomatic incubation interval which can include only small temperature increase and an easy indisposition. Within several hours or days on head skin, a neck and an upper half of a trunk small red spots appear. Chrez arises 12-24 hours an itch and bubbles filled with liquid. New elements of rash continue to appear during the next 2-5 days. In any site of skin, it is possible to see Various stages of development of vesicles on different body parts. These bubbles can cover the most part of skin, and in certain cases can be also found in an oral cavity, a nose, ears, a vagina or a rectum. At some people some blisters develop, but in most cases their number reaches 250-500 pieces. Blisters begin to become covered by a scab soon and disappear. If not to scratch and not to comb vesicles, then hems usually do not form. Sometimes around some of blisters the insignificant and temporary hyperpegmentation is observed. Degree of an itch can vary from scarcely noticeable to expressed. Some patients with chicken pox note headaches, abdominal pains or fever. The complete recovery usually borrows from five to ten days after emergence of the first symptoms. Besides, the most hard cases of a disease, as a rule, take place among children of advanced age and adults.
Though for most of people chicken pox it no more than a question of discomfort for several days, some groups of the population are exposed to risk of development of complications, the most widespread of which are bacterial infections, pneumonia, dehydration, encephalitis, hepatitis. Occur at babies of a complication considerably more often than at children of more advanced age. If infection occurs on the first months of pregnancy, there is small (less than 5%) a risk of congenital anomalies.
Children with reduced immunity are also exposed to high risk of development of complications, up to a lethal outcome.
Treatment of Vertyany smallpox:
Children with uncomplicated forms diseases are treated houses. As chicken pox is a viral disease, antibiotics are inefficient against it. Use of wet compresses or bathing of the child in cold or warm water can reduce an itch once a day. The positive take is yielded by addition in water of baking soda and use of soft children's soap. Skin should be wiped the blotting movements, there is nobody a case it is impossible to rub skin. Nails of the child have to be shortly cut, otherwise combing of bubbles will lead to their infection and the subsequent formation of hems. For protection against scratches it is possible to use gloves.
Vesicles about a mouth can bring discomfort at acceptance of food therefore food has to be cool and soft. Antibiotics can be appointed at infection of elements of rash. Fever can be reduced by reception of acetaminophen or another drug, not containing aspirin. The aspirin and any drugs containing aspirin or other salicylates should not be used at chicken pox as their use can cause Ray's syndrome. Parents should consult with the doctor concerning use of this or that drug.
When easing immunity antiviral drugs can be appointed (for example, an acyclovir). Researches showed that the acyclovir (zovirax) also reduces symptoms at healthy children and adults who contacted to patients, for the prevention of infection.
In most cases symptoms of chicken pox pass within a week, without causing long-term discomfort. Nevertheless, there is one remote effect of chicken pox which strikes about 20% of the population, especially 50 years are more senior than people. As well as all viruses of herpes, a virus of chicken pox are never left by a body after a disease episode. It is in a latent state, локализуясь in nervous cells from where the virus can be activated after a while. It results from a disease or age weakening of immune system. As a result the shingles (which is also called by the surrounding herpes) - the painful inflammation of a nerve which is followed by rash which usually affects a trunk or a face within ten days or more develops. Especially often the disease is observed at advanced age. Two rather new drugs - валацикловир (Валтрекс) and фамцикловир are applied to treatment (Famvir), both from which stop replication of a virus of the surrounding herpes at reception within 72 hours after emergence of rash. Efficiency of these two drugs at patients with an immunodeficiency is not established, and Famvir is not recommended for patients more young than 18 years.
For treatment of children with the weakened immunity, patients with high risk of development of complications there is a specific immunoglobulin (VZIG) which reduces expressiveness of symptoms of chicken pox. It is entered by an injection within 96 hours at emergence of symptoms or suspicion of chicken pox. VZIG is issued in the form of gamma-globulin from blood of immunizirovanny persons.
Also the vaccine against chicken pox (Varivax) is available. Varivax is live, attenuated vaccine. Side effects when using by this vaccine are, as a rule, limited to small morbidity and reddening in the place of an injection. Varivax is not shown to patients who already have strong indications of a disease. The vaccine is also not recommended for use to pregnant women. At its use it is necessary to postpone planning of pregnancy for 3 months after vaccination.