- Ophthalmoplegia reasons
- Ophthalmoplegia symptoms
- Treatment of an ophthalmoplegia
Ophthalmoplegia (from Greek ophthalmos — eyes and plege — blow, defeat) — paralysis of one or several cranial nerves (oculomotor, block and taking away) innervating eye muscles.
Both full, and partial ophthalmoplegia can be inborn and acquired. The inborn ophthalmoplegia is quite often combined with other malformations of an eye (эпикантус, inborn colobomas, etc.). The acquired ophthalmoplegia can proceed sharply or chronically. There is it most often as a result of the isolated defeat of an intracranial piece of third cranial nerves or their kernels. The internal ophthalmoplegia arises most often as a result of the isolated defeat of a kernel of the III couple of cranial nerves.
The acute ophthalmoplegia can be a symptom of the developing encephalitis or encephalomeningitis, and also to arise because of any heavy systemic infection (syphilis, tuberculosis) as a complication of a purulent inflammation of adnexal bosoms, sometimes as display of acute general intoxication (food poisoning) or a serious infectious disease (typhus, diphtheria, malaria). Treats acute ophthalmoplegias also so-called ekzoftalmichesky, observed at some forms of the endocrine frustration connected with damage of a thyroid gland. The chronic ophthalmoplegia develops at back to tabes, a general paralysis, multiple sclerosis. Therapy of an ophthalmoplegia comes down to treatment of the basic disease which led to development of paralysis of third cranial nerves.
The ophthalmoplegia can be unilateral or bilateral. Besides, distinguish a full ophthalmoplegia when all optomotor nerves innervating and outside, both internal eye muscles, and a partial ophthalmoplegia are at the same time paralyzed. The last is divided in turn on internal when only nervous trunks, the innervating iris of the eye and a ciliary body, and outside when only the innervation of the muscle raising an upper eyelid and outside oculomotor muscles is broken are paralyzed. At full O. always observe a characteristic blepharoptosis (ptosis) and a full immovability of the eyeglobes which are in slightly divergent state. The pupil is expanded and is not mobile; the akkomodatsionny device does not work.
Treatment of an ophthalmoplegia:
Treatment of a basic disease against the background of which the ophthalmoplegia developed is carried out. At primary ophthalmoplegia Dibazolum, group B vitamins, vitamin E are applied прозерин.