Musculoskeletal system injuries
- Symptoms of injuries of a musculoskeletal system
- Treatment of injuries of a musculoskeletal system
Injuries of a musculoskeletal system are among widespread, and occur under various circumstances: falling, the awkward or unexpected movement, at a car accident.
Symptoms of injuries of a musculoskeletal system:
• Stretchings or ruptures of sheaves;
• Stretchings or ruptures of muscles and sinews.
The change is a disturbance of integrity of a bone.
• At the closed change, the integument remains unimpaired.
• Existence of a wound, for example, as a result of an exit outside of fragments of the broken bones is characteristic of an open change. The open change is more dangerous as there is a risk of entering of an infection in a wound or losses of blood.
Dislocation is a resistant shift of the joint ends of the jointed bones out of limits of their physiological mobility; it is shown by pain and the expressed dysfunction of a joint (impossibility of commission the movement).
Sprain occurs, at a bone exit out of limits of usual amplitude of the movement. Severe forms of stretchings usually cause severe pain at the slightest movement of a joint. Sprains of talocrural and knee joints, fingers and a wrist are the most widespread. The joint after stretching or a rupture of sheaves can become less steady that increases probability of a repeated injury.
The muscle strain and sinews usually is caused by heavy lifting, excessive muscular work, the sharp or awkward movement. Muscle strain of a neck, a back, a hip or a shin are the most widespread.
Signs and symptoms of an injury:
• Morbidity at palpation of the place of an injury;
• Impossibility of performance of usual movements;
• Skin discoloration in the place of an injury;
• Deformation of an extremity;
• Outside bleeding;
• Feeling of a crunch in bones or the clicking sound at the time of getting injured.
Treatment of injuries of a musculoskeletal system:
Actions of first aid:
Rest. It is necessary to avoid any movements causing pain. Help the victim to accept the most convenient for it situation. At suspicion of a fracture leave the victim in the same situation in which you found it.
Providing an immovability (immobilization) the damaged part of a body.
It is necessary only if you do not expect bystry arrival of "Ambulance" or if intend to transport the victim independently.
Before arrival of "Ambulance", you can record the damaged part of a body of the victim the hands or other objects, for example, pillows, blankets, clothes.
The immobilization of the damaged part is directed on:
• Reduction of pain;
• Prevention of additional injuries;
• Reduction of risk of possible bleeding;
• Reduction of probability of disturbance of blood circulation in the damaged part of a body;
• Prevention of transition of the closed change to open.
Fixing of the damaged part can be made by splinting, the supporting bandage or bandaging.
Tires happen soft, rigid and anatomic.
• As soft tires it is possible to use the put blankets, towels, pillows supporting bandages or bandage.
• The supporting bandage represents a kerchief which is tied behind for providing a support to the injured hand (for example, to a wrist or a brush).
• Hardly curtailed matter or bandage can be successfully used for an immobilization of small parts of a body (for example, a brush or fingers).
• Plates, metal strips, a cardboard, the put magazines, etc. belong to rigid tires.
• At anatomic tires as a support the body of the most injured is used. For example, the injured hand can be bandaged to the victim's breast, a leg - to a healthy leg.
• It is imposed without change of provision of the damaged part of a body;
• Has to cover both the field of damage, and the joints located above and lower than area of an injury;
• Before and after splinting be convinced of safety of normal blood circulation in the damaged part of a body;
• Specify at the victim whether finger-tips of the injured extremity grow dumb at him; examine them: they have to be warm to the touch and have pink color in the field of a nail plate; at complaints to numbness, it is necessary to weaken a bandage;
• Fix the tire above and lower than the place of damage.
At any injury, except for an open change, put something cold (ice, the frozen products from the freezer, etc.) to the place of damage.
• Cold helps to relieve pain and to reduce puffiness as promotes narrowing of blood vessels. Usually "cold" is put for 15 minutes in each hour, if necessary, it is carried out for the first two days after an injury.
The raised situation:
• The raising of the damaged area helps to slow down a blood stream that reduces a swelling. Therefore, at an opportunity raise the injured extremity it is higher than the level of heart.
• It is not necessary to raise the injured extremity until the tire is imposed or if it causes strengthening of pain.