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Electric trauma


The damages caused by influence of electric current are not a frequent type of an injury, but a severe disease, the high frequency of deaths and an invalidism of victims puts it on one of the first places on the importance.

Electric trauma symptoms:

Electric current has a considerable systemic effect on an organism of the passing which was injured on all way that is caused by influence of current on central and the autonomic nervous system. It is expressed in oppression of all vital centers, vascular disorders, increase in a tone of muscles.

In mild cases the fright and a syncope, feeling of fatigue, weakness, dizziness are observed. At a severe electric trauma the loss of consciousness, an apnoea are noted, at extremely weakened cordial activity and fibrillation of a cardiac muscle there can come "imaginary" or clinical death, and sometimes - immediate death right after an injury.

Unlike contact electroburns at short circuit of wires and emergence of an electric arch with a temperature of flame up to 3000 °C thermal burns are possible. The flash, short on time, from wires with tension 124/200 B causes burns of the I-II degree. At very high voltage (over 1000 V) heavy burns up to a carbonization of all body are possible. These burns unlike limited electroburns are followed by severe pain, hypostases, massive plazmopotery, burn shock and other frustration depending on the area of defeat.

Electric trauma reasons:

Mainly technical and in a smaller measure atmospheric (lightning) electricity is a source of an electric trauma. The electric trauma can arise at inclusion of the victim in an electric chain or passing of current through his body to the earth, and also from influence of the "induced" inductive current. At an electric trauma there are local and general manifestations. At the same time considerable disorders of function of various systems of an organism, first of all heart and a respiratory organs, followed, as a rule, by damage of integuments and subjects of fabrics are observed.

Воздействие электротока на организм в зависимости от силы тока

Impact of a current on an organism depending on current

Treatment of the Electric trauma:

First aid at defeat by electric current.

First of all it is necessary to stop impact on the victim of current. If it noted a loss of consciousness or the victim a long time was energized, then hospitalization with a high bed rest and medical observation is necessary. Lack of complaints does not give the grounds to consider the victim's life out of danger, transportation it is carried out on a stretcher.

If the victim is brought from current incidence without life signs, it has no breath and cordial activity, then it is necessary to carry out the closed cardiac massage and artificial ventilation of the lungs. At emergence of fibrillation of a myocardium it is removed by means of a defibrillator or by introduction to a cardial cavity of 6-7 ml of 7,5% of solution of potassium chloride. When carrying out a defibrillation the small electrode is established on a thorax in heart, and another - under a left shoulder-blade of the victim and give the category of 4000-4500 V Viooc duration. After the termination of fibrillation of a cardiac muscle for neutralization of effect of potassium intravenously enter 10 ml of 10% of solution of calcium chloride. At a cardiac standstill vnutriserdechno enter 1 ml of solution of adrenaline 1:1000 or vnutriarterialno pour 100-150 ml of odnogruppny blood with 1 ml of 0,1% of solution of adrenaline.

This complex of resuscitation actions supplement with intravenous administration 1 ml of 0,05% of solution of strophanthin from 20 ml of 40% of solution of glucose or 1 ml of 0,06% of solution of Korglykonum, and for excitement of a respiratory center enter 1 ml of 1% of solution of lobeline. With the lowered arterial pressure and arrhythmia carry out infusional therapy: 400-800 ml of a reopoliglyukin, 400-500 ml of 4% of solution of hydrosodium carbonate and 100-200 ml of 0,125% of solution of novocaine.

Revival is carried out until independent breath and cordial activity are recovered or the signs testimonial of approach of death (livors mortis, an okocheneniye) will not appear.

When passing electric current in an organism of the victim there is a convulsive reduction of muscles that can lead to heavy fractures of bones and dislocations of joints therefore at complaints to joint pains and bones the patient needs to impose the transport tire.

In the presence of local damages (electroburns, burns a flame of an electric arch or owing to fire of clothes) apply a sterile bandage, and in medical institution enter antitetanic serum and anatoxin.

The subsequent medical observation at strict observance of a bed rest within not less than 3 days using the means toning a cardiac muscle and exciting breath and also antihistaminic drugs (Dimedrol), a complex of vitamins C and group B surely if at the time of an injury the loss of consciousness was noted.

Topical treatment of electroburns does not differ from treatment of deep thermal burns, but their feature is, as a rule, deep defeat of fabrics with destruction of muscles, injury of bones and joints that is followed by the expressed intoxication, purulent zateka, phlegmons. In this regard quite often there is a need for amputation of extremities.

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