- Symptoms of Nicotine addiction
- Reasons of Nicotine addiction
- Treatment of Nicotine addiction
Nicotine addiction is a serious illness which, fortunately, recovers though to make it absolutely hardly.
Symptoms of Nicotine addiction:
Physical dependence is a state at which some physiological functions are connected with receipt in an organism of the substances which are contained in tobacco, drug. So, at drug addiction at first the condition of pleasure connected with effect of drug on certain receptors of a brain is reached. But drug affects not only these receptors, but also in the chemical way influences other systems of an organism. As a result for lack of drug the organism begins to behave not as he would behave in a usual situation. The painful sensitivity dulled with drug becomes aggravated, there come "withdrawal pains". Also nicotine addiction (a condition of shortage of nicotine) has similar manifestations. Sharply the mood towards a depression changes, working capacity falls, the cardiovascular system which got used to constant dope hurts.
Psychological dependence consists of creation of a usual line of action: to smoke after a cup of coffee, after an alcohol shot glass, driving. Many smoke only in these situations and quietly bypass without cigarettes in other time. Theoretically they can not smoke in general, but when too many usual situations when the cigarette is required collect, it turns out that the person smokes practically all the time. Thus, psychological dependence is created not so much by chemicals, how many creation of an internal stereotype of behavior.
"Withdrawal pains" of this stereotype - the most difficult in refusal of smoking.
It is necessary to convince nobody of what smokes harmfully. Here not all list of diseases which are provoked by tobacco smoke:
Lung cancer and stomach.
Reasons of Nicotine addiction:
Allocate two reasons of addiction to tobacco:
- physical dependence
- psychological dependence.
Nicotine is the poisonous alkaloid received from leaves and seeds of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Development of dependence on tobacco in heavy smokers is connected with it. In small doses nicotine has a promoting effect on the autonomic nervous system of the person. At hit of nicotine in an organism at regularly smoking people heartbeat becomes frequent, blood pressure increases, vessels are narrowed, appetite decreases. Under its influence in blood the content of cholesterol and fatty acids increases. In high doses nicotine causes paralysis ганглиев the autonomic nervous system.
Treatment of Nicotine addiction:
Refusal of smoking without assistance
According to the American society on studying of cancer, no more than 7% of smokers can refuse smoking without medicamentous or other help. By other estimates, 95% of the people who are not smoking from 1 to 10 years left off smoking without assistance. The most often found methods of independent refusal of smoking: 1) "cold turkey" (the slang expression designating "to stick, tear with a harmful inclination"), sharp, final refusal, for example, a method of the Allene Cara; 2) gradual reduction of number of the smoked cigarettes.
Medicamentous methods of refusal of smoking.
Nikotinzamestitelny therapy. Its use increases rejection probability approximately twice at persons with the expressed nicotine addiction. The plasters containing 21 mg (works within a day) or 15 mg of nicotine (works during the wakefulness period — 16 hours), chewing gum (2 and 4 mg of nicotine, about 20 pieces a day) or the resolving tablets, inhalers are usually applied. The combination of different forms of substitution of nicotine, and also a combination with other drugs is sometimes used.
Antidepressant бупропион (велбутрин, зибан) which in Russia is not registered yet.
Partial agonists of nicotinic receptors.
Vareniklin (Чампикс) brought to the market in 2008 which is a partial agonist of nicotinic receptors shows promises, but its use for a number of patients is fraught with side effects, including from a nervous system.
Cytisine (Табекс), the alkaloid emitted from a broom of Russian. The first drug approved for treatment of nicotine addiction. Has few side effects in small doses. However in the review of 2011 it is shown that proofs of efficiency of cytisine are unconvincing.
Non-drug ways of refusal of smoking.
To leave off smoking a doctor's advice is the most economic intervention in modern medicine, even at small percent of the smokers following this advice. The explanation of effects of smoking, the help and encouragement, support of motivation — all these factors increase rejection probability from smoking.