- Hyperglycemia symptoms
- Hyperglycemia reasons
- Treatment of the Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia (from other - Greek υπερ — from above, over; — sweet; αἷμα — blood) — the clinical symptom designating increase in content of glucose in blood serum in comparison with norm in 3,3 — 5,5 mmol/l:
easy hyperglycemia — 6,7-8,2 mmol/l;
moderately severe — 8,3-11,0 mmol/l;
heavy — over 11,1 mmol/l;
at an indicator over 16,5 mmol/l the prekoma develops;
at an indicator over 55,5 there comes the giperosmolyarny coma.
For persons with it is long the current disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism these values can differ a little.
The following signs can be connected with an acute or chronic hyperglycemia, the first three are included in a classical hyper glycemic triad:
Polydipsia — thirst, especially excessive thirst
Polyuria — a frequent urination
Loss of weight
The obscured sight
Bad healing of wounds (cuts, scratches, etc.)
Dryness in a mouth
Dryness or itch of skin
The slow infections which are badly giving in to standard therapy such as vulval candidiasis or outside otitis
Signs of an acute hyperglycemia can include:
Dehydration because of a glucosuria and an osmotic diuresis
The chronic hyperglycemia which persistirut irrespective of a condition of the patient most often happens in case of a diabetes mellitus, and actually is the main characteristic of this disease.
The acute episode of a hyperglycemia for no apparent reason can show on manifestation of a diabetes mellitus or to predisposition to it. This form of a hyperglycemia is caused by the insufficient level of insulin. This low level of insulin inhibits glucose transport through cellular membranes thanks to what the level of free sugar in blood increases.
Frustration of food.
Disturbances in food can lead to an acute not diabetic hyperglycemia, for example, at nervous bulimia when the person does not control amount of the eaten food and respectively receives huge caloric content at one time of food. Thus from food a large amount of simple and complex carbohydrates arrives.
Some medicinal substances are capable to increase risk of development of a hyperglycemia: β-blockers, thiazide diuretics, corticosteroids, Niacinum, фентамидин, inhibitors of proteases, L-asparaginase and some antidepressants.
Biotin avitaminosis also increases risk of development of a hyperglycemia.
At most of the patients who had acute stress (a stroke or a myocardial infarction), the hyperglycemia is capable to develop even outside the diagnosis "diabetes mellitus". Observations of patients and researches on animals showed that the similar post-stressful hyperglycemia is associated with higher lethality at a stroke and a heart attack.
The hyperglycemia can develop against the background of an infection and inflammatory process or a stress. Endogenous counterinsulin hormones start this process (catecholamines, glucocorticoids and others). Therefore increase in level of glucose in blood should not be regarded as a diabetes mellitus of the 2nd type at once — for a start it is necessary to exclude all other reasons (including a diabetes mellitus at children which often demonstrates in similar situations).
MabThera (Rituksimab) is frequent side effect from use
Treatment of the Hyperglycemia:
In most cases treatment provides administration of insulin, and also treatment of the basic disease which caused a hyperglycemia.