- Amebiasis reasons
- Amebiasis symptoms
- Treatment of the Amebiasis
The amebiasis — a protozoan disease, is caused by Entamoeba histolytica and is characterized by ulcer and necrotic damage of a large intestine.
The activator of an amebiasis Entamoeba histolytica concerns to the Endamoebidae family. Amoebas in a vegetative form are capable to swallow erythrocytes, move along a large intestine, forming cysts. Vegetative forms of amoebas easily perish, and cysts is long keep viability. In excrements they survive up to 15 days, in the wet environment — up to 8 days, and in water — up to 1 month. Cysts of amoebas, getting into intestines, ekstsistirutsya and breed. In the blind and ascending colonic guts they are implemented into a mucous membrane, get into a submucosa and a muscular coat, forming necroses and ulcers. Necrotic ulcers have the oval form, gryaznovatoyosery coloring and slightly tower over a mucosal surface of a cover of a large intestine. The gut wall in places of defeat is thickened and becomes friable. There are microabscesses and deep ulcers which easily perforate in an abdominal cavity, causing peritonitis or interintestinal abscesses. At destruction of vessels hematogenous dissimination of amoebas is possible. In bodies and fabrics where they settle, necroses and the encapsulated abscesses develop. Especially часто abscesses are formed in a liver and lungs, is more rare in a brain.
In the countries with warm climate invasiveness of the population amoebas exceeds 30%, with a temperate climate — 2 — 5%. Distribution of an amebiasis is promoted by bad water supply, low living standards of the population. Patients and tsistonositel are a source of an invasion. The transfer mechanism — fecal and oral. As factors of transfer serve water and foodstuff, household objects.
The amebiasis proceeds in the form of chronic recurrent process. The disease begins gradually, pains in the right half of a stomach a febricula develop. The chair becomes liquid with slime impurity. Affected areas of a large intestine are probed in the form of painful rollers of a pasty consistence, suspicious on tumorous educations. In process of progressing of a disease the chair becomes more often, in it appear about blood veins, he reminds "crimson jelly". At distribution of process on a caecum development of an acute appendicitis is possible. Gradually the cachexia, anemia and an adynamy develops. There are intestinal and abenteric complications. Often occur among intestinal complications perikolit also a perforation of amoebic ulcers in an abdominal cavity or in the next body. Intestinal bleedings, narrowings of a gut with symptoms of partial intestinal obstruction can develop. Carry abscesses of a liver and other bodies and fabrics to abenteric complications of an amebiasis. Amoebic abscesses are shown by oznoba, fever of remitiruyushchy character. Features of pain depend on localization of abscess and reaction of the struck body. In blood the neutrophylic leukocytosis and sharply raised SOE are observed.
For the diagnosis parasitological have crucial importance it is investigated the fresh excrements or smears from a large intestine received during a rektoskopiya. Use also serological laboratory techniques (RNGA, IFA, REMA EL1SA, etc.). Apply radiological, ultrasonic and other tool methods of a research to diagnosis of abenteric forms of an amebiasis. At an amebiasis the differential diagnosis should be carried out with ulcer colitis and a disease Krone of a large intestine, a shigellosis, a balanthidiasis and tumors of an abdominal cavity.
Treatment of the Amebiasis:
For treatment use the drugs capable to destroy the amoebas which are in an intestines wall (Intestopanum, интетрикс) and in fabric (metronidazole, Tinidazolum, фасижин, yatren and орнидазол). Use also medical ochiyostitelny enemas from 0,01% solution of potassium permanganate or 0,1% Furacilin solution. Treatment of an amebiasis 2 times a day within 7 days carry out 1% by emetine hydrochloride solution on 1,5 — 2 ml intramusculary; in a week treatment is repeated. In an interval between cycles of emetine appoint delagil on 0,25 g 3 times a day, Chiniofonum (yatren) on 0,5 g 3 times a day. It is most effective at amoebic dysentery metronidazole (Trichopolum, flagyl). Appoint it on 0,5 — 0,75 g 3 times a day within 5 — 7 days. In the presence of liver abscess surgical treatment — puncture drainage is shown to the patient. Apply to treatment of an amebiasis also интетрикс which is appointed on 2 capsules by 3 times a day during food within 5 — 6 days. At abscesses of a liver and other abenteric forms of an amebiasis apply metronidazole, Tinidazolum and emetine. Carry surely out puncturation of abscesses or their opening. Treatment is carried out by courses according to specially developed schemes with an interval of 2 months.
The absolute recovery after treatment comes not at once. The period of reconvalescence can proceed several weeks or even months. Patients are disturbed by abdominal pains, disturbances of a chair, weakness, perspiration, a takhikaryodiya. Bad portability of milk and other products containing disaccharides is often observed.
Prevention of an amebiasis consists in respect for personal hygiene, sanitarno - hygienic norms of storage and transportation of foodstuff. For the prevention of development a syndrome of the angry intestines in the period of reconvalescence the facilitated food, fermental drugs are recommended.