For the first time started talking about an actinomycosis in 1877 when the German scientist Bollinger investigating purulent damages of genitals of women allocated new a nosological form of an infection. Today it is known that the actinomycosis is caused by different types of aerobic or anaerobic radiant mushrooms. On the nature of activity they are close to bacteria, develop in the soil, water, on plants, saprofitirut on mucous membranes of animals and the person. As a rule, the actinomycosis gets to an organism of living beings in the airborne way or through injured a fate of an integument and a mucous membrane. In favorable conditions an actinomycosis - the disease quickly extends on a body, gains ability to limfogematogenny metastatic development.
The disease etiology is studied by an actinomycosis insufficiently. Researchers believe that the actinomycosis chelyustno – front area is shown under the influence of uric, bilious and sialoliths which are infection carriers. In most cases with an actinomycosis people with the worn-out immune system not capable to resist to decrease in redox potential of fabrics get sick. Men are ill more often, than women that partly is explained by wide circulation of addictions among a strong half of mankind. How the actinomycosis got to an organism, allocate two forms of a disease – primary and secondary. The first develops owing to direct implementation of fungi in fabrics. The secondary actinomycosis of maxillofacial area is caused by distribution of an infekt in the metastatic way.
Doctors distinguish three forms of a disease of an actinomycosis:
Though at patients the actinomycosis of maxillofacial area is most often observed, the infection can develop on any site of an integument. This process is followed by the most different symptoms therefore we will allocate only the main, most characteristic symptoms of an infection:
The incubation interval of an infection lasts from several weeks to 2-3 years therefore at the diagnosis treatment of an actinomycosis completely depends on that, the disease was how timely found. During diagnosis are used: skin allergy tests, differential diagnosis, immunodiagnosis actions.
To patients at treatment of an actinomycosis antibiotics of a broad spectrum of activity, iodine drugs, vitamins, актинолизат are appointed. The last represents the means received from cultures of pathogenic anaerobic actinomycetes. It is entered into an organism intramusculary. A standard dosage – 1-4 ml of drug 2 times a week. The course of treatment of an actinomycosis proceeds about 1,5 months. At the same time the doctor has to monitor attentively the general, local and focal reactions of an organism for the prevention of complications.
In total at an actinomycosis to the patient 2-3 courses of treatment with a break between them are appointed 1-2 months. If at the patient the started, heavy actinomycosis develops, doctors make the decision on surgical removal of the center of an infection. For the most bystry rehabilitation to the person enter plasma, use a hemotransfusion and an autohemotherapy. Much attention is paid to counteraction to the factors causing decrease in immunity.
At adequate approach and the timely diagnosis, the forecast of treatment of an actinomycosis is quite favorable. However, you should not forget also about prevention of a disease which consists in sanitation of an oral cavity, elementary hygiene and injury prevention of an integument of a body or mucous membranes.
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