- Hypoxia reasons
- Hypoxia symptoms
- Treatment of a hypoxia
The hypoxia is the state arising at insufficient supply of body tissues with oxygen or disturbance of its absorption with fabrics. The hypoxia is observed very often and forms a basis various патологич. processes. According to modern representations, the short-term hypoxia can arise also without existence in an organism of any pathological processes breaking transport of oxygen or absorption by its fabrics. It can be when oxygen requirement in connection with an extraordinary fizich sharply increases. activity (hard physical work, an overstrain in sports activities, etc.).
The hypoxia can be acute, even fulminant (several seconds), and chronic, proceeding for months and years.
Hypoxia reasons the most various. It can result from a lack of oxygen of the inhaled air, напр, at rise on height, during the work in mines, wells, in the submarine, in diving suits, etc. The hypoxia can arise at obstruction of respiratory tracts a foreign body, slime, at a spasm of bronchial tubes, and also at diseases of lungs (hypostasis or an inflammation) at which the respiratory surface of lungs sharply decreases, and at other disturbances of a respiratory organs. At obstruction of respiratory tracts or from other reasons causing sharp disturbance of breath there can be a serious condition — asphyxia.
The acute hypoxia happens at heavy blood loss, a myocardial infarction and other serious conditions, and also at poisoning with carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide) therefore ability of blood to transfer oxygen to fabrics is broken.
The chronic hypoxia can develop at heart diseases, a cardiosclerosis that is connected with weakness of cordial activity and insufficient blood supply of fabrics.
A specific place is held by the hypoxia caused by poisoning with some chemicals, напр, cyanides. These substances suppress respiratory enzymes of cells and fabrics which lose ability to acquire oxygen. At the same time there can be a fulminant hypoxia. Also deficit of some vitamins can be the cause of a hypoxia.
The nervous system is most sensitive to a lack of oxygen. So, at complete cessation of supply with oxygen signs of serious violations in bark of big cerebral hemispheres are found through 2/2 — 3 min. At a hypoxia the metabolism in cells and fabrics of all organism sharply changes. Disturbances of cordial activity can be expressed in increase of cordial reductions, then weakening of action of the heart, so-called threadlike pulse appears. In other cases frequent cordial reductions suddenly are replaced by urezhenny pulse, sharp blanching of the person, cold sweat acts, legs and hands grow cold, there is an unconscious state. At some poisonings, e.g. inhalation of high concentration of gas of methane, vapors hydrocianic to - you, very quickly come complete cessation of functions of vitals (heart, a brain). After the postponed acute hypoxia the further condition of an organism considerably is defined by the changes which arose in bark of big cerebral hemispheres.
The chronic forms of a hypoxia arising at a long circulatory unefficiency, breath at some diseases, are shown by increased fatigue, an asthma, heartbeat at a small exercise stress, decrease in working capacity.
For prevention of the hypoxia arising from a lack of oxygen of the inhaled air the special trainings raising a possibility of accustoming to a hypoxia are held (for work in the conditions of highlands, in the enclosed space, etc.).
Treatment of a hypoxia:
In all cases a hypoxia, caused by a lack of oxygen of air, it is necessary to remove or take out in the form of first aid the victim on fresh air if there is an opportunity, to allow to inhale oxygen. If the hypoxia did not go too far, these measures lead to elimination of all disturbances. At hit in respiratory tracts of foreign bodys it is necessary to take all measures to their elimination.
At the Poisoning with carbon monoxide first of all it is necessary to take out the victim on fresh air, to perform CPR.
In all cases of emergence of signs of acute oxygen insufficiency it is necessary to address for medical aid; it is necessary to remember that in these cases emergency medical service is necessary. If help to the victim is given timely, all disturbances connected with a hypoxia can be liquidated.