- Hysteria symptoms
- Hysteria reasons
- Treatment of Hysteria
Conversion at hysterical neurosis is a transformation of the forced-out sincere conflict into somatic symptomatology. Conversion symptoms, reflecting the conflict symbolically, are aimed at benefit from a disease.
The concepts "conversion reactions", "conversion syndrome", "conversion neurosises", "conversion hysteria" and "hysterical reactions" are in many respects identical. At the same time hysterical reaction designates not only somatic disturbances. "Hysterical" serves as definition of specific mental disturbances. Hysterical reactions occur preferential at hysterical persons, but they are not connected rigidly with any one mental structure. Because of pejorative assessment with which the term "hysterical" in life is used this concept of psychiatry is usually not applied.
Conversion reactions are shown by motive, sensitive and touch symptoms, and also epileptic states, for example paralyzes of one or several extremities, often both legs with impossibility to stand and go (astasia abasia), or a full obezdvizhennost which corresponds to the reflex of imaginary death which is found at some animals and makes an impression of lack of consciousness. Psychomotor conditions of excitement, sharp motive excitement with raging and shouts are opposite.
Frequent symptoms of conversion are painful states in the most different parts of a body, but especially headaches and abdominal pains. Needless to say that any organic disease at them is excluded. Vomitings can also be manifestation of conversion reaction.
It is impossible to depict all variety of conversion syndromes. Almost any picture of a disease can be imitated in the form of conversion reaction. However and really available somatic frustration and functional insufficiency can be decked and be supported by similar hysterical mechanisms.
Conversion reactions were the first model on which Freud based developing of neurosises. If unrealized desires and not overcome conflicts are forced out in unconscious, their energy remains. Later it is shown in the most different forms, at conversion reactions in the form of signs of somatic frustration. The expressive and symbolical nature of conversion reactions lies on a surface: paralysis of a leg indicates that the person cannot go more; visual disturbances to suite telstvut that the patient wants to know nothing about what occurs before his eyes; at swallowing disturbance — he is not able "to swallow troubles"; in the presence of vomiting — to the patient "everything is opposite". "The body conversation" is very clear and dramatic here. "The body becomes a ball for a game" (Бланкенбург).
Conversion reactions represent unsatisfied imaginations and claims. At the same time it is worth to remember about their sexual contents as it is observed at a hysterical arch (now seldom meeting) — a functional attack with a hyperlordosis and lifting of a basin at women.
Many conversion syndromes should be understood how the appeal. They symbolically express certain tendencies - it is as if reproach: yes, I am paralyzed, anything else it is impossible to demand from me; so to me it happened; now at last you will care for me. Conversion syndromes are directed to release from external and internal duties, it is an appeal to the world around to attract attention. They serve the purpose to benefit from a disease in two plans: by formation of a hysterical symptom a certain satisfaction from the forced-out motives (primary advantage of a disease), but also, thanks to bigger attention is reached, to recognition and assessment the nartsistichesky satisfaction (secondary advantage of a disease) is reached.
Conversion reactions are more characteristic of women, than of men. They are more often shown at hysterical, and also at asthenic, nartsistichesky persons and at others, having a delay of personal development. Conversion reactions on intensity and a form depend on social conditions, the world around causing alarm from assessment which they receive from people around. An essential role is played by "infectivity" and tendency to identification and imitation. In the last decades there was a change of their forms — from external gestures to psychophysical, deeper disorders of functions; "hysterical forms of representations" were softened towards so-called psychosomatic "intimate forms".
Treatment of Hysteria:
Prior to treatment it is necessary to solve whether it will be directed to elimination of symptoms or to resolution of conflict in the beginning. Sharply arising conversion symptoms need to be treated and removed as soon as possible before they are fixed owing to an obuslovlivaniye (for example, a social reinforcement) when secondary organic disturbances, for example motive frustration appear. In psychotherapy use suggestive influences and behavioural therapeutic methods; hypnosis is in some cases shown.