- Epilepsy symptoms
- Epilepsy reasons
- Treatment of Epilepsy
Epilepsy - the heterogeneous group of diseases which is characterized by the repeated, spontaneously arising attacks. An epileptic seizure - clinical implication of paroxysmal categories in brain neurons.
MODERN CLASSIFICATION OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES
I. Partial (focal, local) attacks.
A. Simple partial attacks.
3. Vegetative and visceral (with autonomous symptoms).
4. With disturbance of mental functions.
B. Difficult (complex) partial attacks.
1. Began with simple partial attacks.
2. Began with consciousness disturbance.
B. Partial attacks with secondary generalization (for the second time generalized).
II. Generalized attacks.
A. Absentias epileptica.
B. Myoclonic attacks.
B. Clonic attacks.
G. Tonic attacks.
D. Toniko-klonichesky attacks.
E. Atonic (astatic) attacks.
III. Not classified attacks.
Toniko-klonichesky attacks (big epileptic seizures). Sudden developing of a generalized convulsive attack demonstrates involvement in pathological process of a cerebral cortex. Toniko-klonichesky attacks usually begin so: at the patient eyes and a mouth are open, hands are bent and taken away, legs are straightened. Before approach of a tonic phase of an attack usually there is a reduction of respiratory muscles leading to vocalization. Then there is a compression of jaws, an apnoea with a hypervolemia and cyanosis, the incontience of urine and, more rare, a calla is frequent with tongue biting. The tonic phase of an attack which is usually proceeding 15-30 with at once is replaced by the clonic phase which is characterized by violent rhythmic reductions of muscles of all departments of a trunk including respiratory muscles. There are deviations of eyeglobes, grimacing, an apnoea. Clonic twitchings gradually weaken, urezhatsya, and the attack comes to an end. The attack, as a rule, proceeds 1-2 min. Then breath is normalized and the patient falls asleep. In a few minutes the patient can wake up, but he often feels drowsiness, the expressed fatigue and confusion of consciousness within several hours after an attack. Besides, often there is a headache.
The special presentiment or aura can precede generalized attacks; the attentive relation to similar symptoms can give big help in establishment of localization of the epileptic center and differentiation of an attack from a faint. The pricking and numbness indicate defeat of a parietal lobe, and visual and acoustical feelings assume involvement in pathological process of temporal and occipital departments. More difficult psychological feelings and perceptions can be noted at temporal epilepsy.
Small (absansny) attack (absansny epilepsy). At absansny epilepsy during an attack there are no falling and convulsions. The main symptom of epilepsy in this case - the person fades (fades stop short or, without having completed the begun movement) - consciousness is switched off for several seconds, the person ceases to move, speak, write; the fixed or absent look sent to one point. Since this attack very short-term, people around can not always trace it. After the termination of an attack of the patient continues to be engaged in what it did to it and does not remember an attack.
Partial epileptic seizures (jacksonian epilepsy). Usually the attack passes at consciousness preservation, symptoms of jacksonian epilepsy - the arising spasms are localized in a leg or in a hand. Over time, in the course of progressing of a disease, partial epileptic seizures can pass into generalized.
The aura - an attack prelude can precede an epileptic seizure (an epilepsy attack). The aura can be touch, vegetative, sensitive, motor, speech:
* touch aura - before an attack of function of sense bodys without changes;
* vegetative aura - internals are felt;
* sensitive aura - the broken sensitivity of separate body parts;
* motor aura - spontaneously arising, unmotivated same repeating movements of extremities, trunks, facial muscles, etc.;
* speech aura - a set of incoherent words is pronounced.
If epileptic seizures follow without the improvement periods, then the epileptic status which can proceed of half an hour about one days develops. This state demands emergency medical service.
Epilepsy (epileptic disease) is a polyetiological disease, can lead the various harmful factors operating both vnutriutrobno and at the time of delivery, and postnatalno, especially in early years of life to its emergence (injuries, infections, intoxications). At epilepsy with the late beginning (after 30 years) at younger patients with the major etiological factor more often the craniocereberal injury is, patients of more advanced age have a cerebral vascular pathology. Also hereditary burdeness matters, but concerning in what it is specific it is expressed, opinions are very contradictory that in many respects probably depends on a possibility of hereditary heterogeneity of a disease (N. P. Bochkov, etc.). There are data that the disease not in itself, but predisposition to it is hereditarily transmitted. In particular, point out lability of vazomotor, certain disbolism, abnormality of development of some neural systems (U. Penfild and G. Dzhasper). Now very popular belief that epilepsy most often arises at a combination of hereditary predisposition to additional vrednost, usually in the form of exogenous factors (injuries, infectious damages of the central nervous system etc.). Epilepsy also meets an etiology obscure still so far (in such cases sometimes apply the terms "essential", "idiopathic" or "cryptogenic epilepsy" - from Greek kryptos - secret, hidden).
Treatment of Epilepsy:
Treatment of epilepsy should be begun as soon as possible: it will allow to suspend progressing of a disease with development of specific changes of the personality. Treatment of epilepsy includes stopping of an epileptic seizure or the epileptic status by means of a combination of anticonvulsant drugs, mezhpristupny treatment, preventive actions and social rehabilitation. Treatment of epilepsy consists in gradual selection of therapeutic procedures as the disease always proceeds with specific features and it is necessary to pick up that program which will provide effective treatment of epilepsy. Treatment of epilepsy is carried out by medicamentous therapy – to the patient anticonvulsant drugs are appointed. The choice of anticonvulsants depends on type of a convulsive attack. Anticonvulsant drugs need to be accepted it is long, regardless of the frequency of attacks. It is possible to cancel treatment only in that case when attacks were not at least within 3 years. On the expiration of this term treatment of epilepsy is considered successful, and the patient stops accepting medicines. Most of patients needs lifelong reception of anticonvulsant drugs.
In the preventive purposes it is recommended to avoid alcohol intake, strong coffee and tea, smoking, an overeating, interruption of a night dream, overcooling and overheating, stay at big height, and also other adverse effects of external environment. The milk and vegetable diet, long stay on air, easy physical exercises, observance of a work-rest schedule are shown.