- Stutter symptoms
- Stutter reasons
- Treatment of Stutter
Stutter — the disturbance of the tempo-rhythmic party of the speech caused by a convulsive condition of muscles of organs of articulation.
According to more than 3 million people stammer worldwide. This disease arises irrespective of age, but most often arises at children aged from 2 up to 6 years when skills of the speech are acquired. Boys three times bigger are subject to stutter, than girls. But most often stutter passes with age, according to only 3% of adults stammers.
Stutter is followed by interruptions of the speech which can be expressed in repetition of separate sounds, syllables or the whole phrases, unnatural rastyagivaniye of sounds.
Stutter is almost always followed by tension, alarm and fear of the speech.
At the same time the unnatural movements, grimaces of the person or tics by means of which the stammering person tries to overcome stutter are possible.
Origins of stutter are definitely not established. It is supposed that developing of stutter is caused by set of genetic and neurologic factors. Anyway, stutter is followed by increase in a tone and emergence of convulsive readiness of the motive (motor) nerve speech centers, including Brock's center. Also there is an opinion that stutter arises in the investigation of a fright at early age at children, it is possible to treat in the different ways. At adults stutter can can develop in the investigation of a contusion, such stutter can pass over time.
Treatment of Stutter:
Techniques of overcoming stutter were developed by authors on the basis of various understanding them this disturbance of the speech. Large number of methodical approaches to overcoming this pathology is explained by complexity of its structural manifestations and insufficient level of knowledge of its nature.
The scientific research based on experimental and kliniko-psychological studying of stammering allowed to formulate valuable theoretical and practical provisions, to define the place of logopedics and various medical actions in complex system of treatment.
Now expediency of the differentiated and individual approach to stammering different age categories taking into account complex structure and an etiopathogenesis of speech disturbance does not raise doubts. It should be noted that so far researchers speak various, and sometimes and the opposite points of view on this speech pathology. Most of the researchers and practicians working on this problem nevertheless hold the opinion on need of complex studying and treatment of this disturbance of the speech, the choice of these or those methods of complex therapy. In these conditions there is a need of search of unified conceptual bases of interaction of specialists, coordination of their activity.
At rehabilitation stammering now an integrated approach as disturbance of smoothness of the speech is connected with a number of the reasons of both biological, and social and psychological character is used. First, this combination of correctional and pedagogical and medical and recreational work which goes for normalization of all parties of the speech, motility, mental processes, education of the personality stammering and improvement of an organism in general.
Secondly, an integrated approach includes system of the levers of different specialists which are accurately differentiated, but coordinated among themselves. It provides collaboration of the doctor, logopedist, psychologist, a ritmist, the functional diagnosis specialist, physiotherapist and social worker.
Now in special literature are presented as some methods of logopedic work with stammering (the covering only separate parties interesting us problems), and a row of complex rehabilitation systems which conceptual base is the accounting of features of psychophysical development of the patient, the etiology, mechanisms and symptomatology of disturbance including speech, psychological, motor, age features of this contingent of patients.
At a neurotic form of stutter therapeutic influences have to be directed to decrease in excitability of emotsiogenny structures of a brain that can be reached by means of a combination of medicines and various psychotherapeutic receptions (a stress-therapy, hypnosis, an autogenic training). Logopedic occupations on this background take place much more effectively.
Stammering with a neurosis-like form of speech defect need the long correctional and pedagogical influences promoting development of the regulating functions of a brain (stimulation of attention, memory and other mental processes) in the special drug treatment directed to a reduction of effects of early organic lesion of a brain. Logopedic occupations for this group of stammering have to be regular during considerable time. Surely include the methods directed to a ritmization of movements in a complex of medical and psychological influences.
Thus, when nervous mechanisms of stutter are connected with organo-functional defeat of motor structures of a brain, normalization in functional system of the speech has to go due to development of new speech motor reflexes while at neurotic stutter treatment goes for recovery and strengthening of the available speech motor avtomatizm acquired in early speech ontogenesis. As stammering have specific disturbances of smoothness of the speech, feature of its temporitmichesky organization, and also changes in the motor sphere concerning a dynamic praksis and musical and rhythmic abilities it causes need of formation of the ritmointonatsionny organization of the oral speech which is one of important links in a complex method of correction of stutter.
Ambiguity of views of researchers of results of treatment is caused by various approaches to definition of estimates and criteria of efficiency of correction of this disturbance of the speech.
Efficiency of correction of stutter is defined by a number of factors:
• nature of defect and degree of manifestation of its symptomatology (speech, motor and psychological features);
• terms of the beginning of correctional influence and its duration;
• complexity of influence;
• adequacy of the chosen techniques of correctional influence, the accounting of age and psychological features of students, etc.; installation on the doctrine.