- Kidney Cancer symptoms
- Kidney Cancer reasons
- Cancer therapy of a kidney
Kidney cancer (renal cancer) this disease at which in a kidney malignant (tumoral) cells appear and begin to share uncontrolledly, creating a tumor. The majority of malignant new growths begin the development in an inside layer of small renal tubules. Such type of cancer is called a nephrocellular carcinoma. The positive moment is the fact that this type of tumors usually is found even before distribution (innidiation) to the remote bodies and fabrics. And cancer found at early stages will respond to treatment better.
Distinguish several stages of cancer of kidney. The more stage, the zapushchenny malignant process.
* The tumor less than 7 cm localized only in a kidney.
* The tumor more than 7 cm localized only in a kidney.
* The tumor is localized in a kidney and in the lymph nodes surrounding it, or
* The tumor is located with an adrenal gland or in the fatty tissue surrounding a kidney and also can affect one of regional lymph nodes, or
* The tumor extends to the main vessel of a kidney and can be also defined in one of regional lymph nodes.
* Cancer extends out of limits of a pararenal fatty tissue and can be also defined in one of regional lymph nodes.
* The tumor affects two and more next lymph nodes, or
* Cancer extends to other bodies and fabrics, for example, on intestines, a pancreas or lungs. Also the tumor can affect the next lymph nodes.
Kidney Cancer symptoms:
In most cases at early stages of a disease symptoms are absent. But in process of growth of a tumor can arise clinical manifestations. At cancer of kidneys it can be observed one and more following symptoms:
* Blood in urine
* Swelling sideways stomach
* Appetite loss
* Sharp weight loss without the explicit reason
* The long fever which is not caused by cold or other infection
* The expressed weakness
* Hypostases of anklebones or legs
At spread of cancer of kidney on other bodies and fabrics such symptoms can also appear:
* Shortage of breath
* Blood expectoration
Kidney Cancer reasons:
Kidney cancer origins are still unknown to doctors. But there are several factors increasing risk of development of this pathology. For example, most often cancer of a kidney is diagnosed for aged people 40 years are more senior. Also treat risk factors:
* Smoking. If you smoke, then your risk to develop cancer of kidneys twice bigger in comparison with non-smoking. At the same time cigars also increase risk of development of cancer.
* Male. At men of chances to develop cancer twice bigger, than at women.
* Obesity. Excess weight can break hormonal exchange in an organism and promote development of cancer.
* Prolonged use of certain drugs. It concerns uncontrolled reception of medicines which are released without recipe.
* A serious illness of kidneys or long stay on dialysis (an artificial kidney) at a full renal failure.
* Existence of certain genetic diseases, for example Hippel-Lindau's disease or hereditary papillary and cellular carcinoma.
* The burdened family anamnesis on renal cancer. Especially high risk is noted at sibling (brothers and sisters).
* Influence of certain chemicals, such, as asbestos, cadmium, gasoline, organic solvents and certain herbicides.
* The increased arterial pressure. To doctors it is still not clear whether the hypertensia or medicines which are applied to its treatment is promote increase in risk.
* Black skin color. The risk of development of cancer of kidney in Blacks is slightly higher, than at representatives with white skin. The reasons are unknown.
Existence of the listed risk factors does not mean that you will surely develop kidney cancer. As also the fact that at their total absence at you this pathology can develop is right.
Cancer therapy of a kidney:
There are several standard types of cancer therapy of a kidney. Most often, operation happens the first stage of treatment. Even, if the surgeon completely removes a tumor, your attending physician can offer you additional methods of treatment for destruction of the tumor cells which remained in an organism which are not visible with the naked eye.
It is possible to carry tumoral vaccines, gene therapy, transplantation of stem cells to new methods of cancer therapy of a kidney. You can ask about them the doctor.
The operations applied at kidney cancer. The main types of the operative measures applied at kidney cancer are listed below. The choice of operation depends on prevalence of malignant process.
* The radical nephrectomy consists kidneys, an adrenal gland and surrounding fabrics at a distance. Also often delete the next lymph nodes. It is the most often applied kidney cancer operation.
* The simple nephrectomy consists at a distance only kidneys.
* At a partial nephrectomy delete only a malignant new growth in a kidney with a small amount of the fabrics surrounding it.
The person can survive even with a part of a kidney so long while this part functions. If the surgeon deletes both kidneys or both of them do not work, to be necessary for you the special car for purification of blood (dialysis) or change of a new kidney (transplantation of a kidney). Transplantation of a kidney is possible if cancer is localized only in a kidney and the donor kidney is available.
If cancer of a kidney is not subject to surgical treatment, the doctor can offer other methods of controlling with a tumor.
* Action of cryotherapy is based on destructive action of cold on tumor cells.
* At radio-frequency ablation apply the high-frequency radio waves destroying a malignant new growth.
* At the arterial embolization in an artery bearing blood to a kidney enter the material blocking a blood stream. Such procedure can be applied to narrowing of a tumor before operation.
Biological therapy of cancer of kidney. The biotherapy is based on resources of immune system of the patient for fight against cancer due to strengthening, the direction and resuming of natural protective system of the patient. The substances produced by an organism or in vitro. Interferon use an alpha or interleykin-2 can be an example of biological therapy at metastatic cancer of a kidney.
Targetny therapy at kidney cancer. For this method of treatment drugs or other substances for detection and achievement of tumor cells without damage of normal (healthy) cells are used. One of types of targetny therapy are antiangiogenic agents. They prevent growth of blood vessels in a tumor, promoting reduction of its sizes or complete cessation of growth.
Radiation therapy at kidney cancer. Often apply to reduction of clinical displays of cancer of kidney. The method is based on use of high-frequency radiation for destruction of tumor cells or a stop of their growth. At cancer therapy of a kidney use two main types of radiation:
* External radiation is based on the direction of radiation on a tumor from the special car which is located near the patient.
* At internal radiation radioactive materials are entered through needles, catheters or conductors directly into a tumor or near it.
The chemotherapy is a method of cancer therapy by means of cytostatic drugs which effect is directed to destruction of tumor cells or the termination of division. The chemotherapy at cancer of a kidney is less effective, than at other tumors. Therefore at cancer of a kidney it is applied if other types of treatment are not effective. Depending on type and a stage of cancer of kidney there are two ways of introduction of chemotherapy:
* By means of system chemotherapy the tumor cells circulating in all body are destroyed. Himiopreparata it is possible to apply inside or the doctor appoints them intramusculary or intravenously.
* By means of regional chemotherapy it is possible to reach malignant cells in a certain area. Himiopreparata are entered into a certain body part, for example into the spinal canal, any body or into a stomach.