- Spinal fracture reasons
- Spinal fracture symptoms
The fracture or dislocation of vertebrae can provoke injury by bone fragments of spinal nerves or a spinal cord. The majority of spinal fractures occur at car accidents, falling, gunshot wounds or sports injuries.
Spinal fracture reasons:
- car accidents (45%);
- falling (20%);
- sports injuries (15%);
acts of violence (15%).
Such diseases as osteoporosis of a backbone and tumor also promote changes. 80% of patients with spinal fracture are made by young people at the age of 18-25 years. Men have 4 times more chances to get traumatic spinal fracture, than at women.
Spinal fracture symptoms:
Symptoms of spinal fracture vary depending on weight and localization of damages. They include a dorsodynia or in a neck, numbness, a pricking, muscular spasms, weakness, dysfunction of intestines / bladder, paralysis. Paralysis can indicate injury of a spinal cord. Not all changes cause injury of a spinal cord, cases of a complete separation of a spinal cord are extremely rare.
Depending on weight of an injury, the victim can feel pain, difficulties when walking, or to lose ability to the movement by hands or legs (paralysis). Many changes begin to live at conservative treatment, however heavy changes can demand surgical intervention.
To have an idea of spinal fractures, it is necessary to understand how the backbone works. The backbone consists of 33 bones called by vertebrae which are the main support for a body, allowing to stand on the feet, carry out turns. In the middle of each vertebra there is a hollow space which is called the spinal channel. It provides protection for a spinal cord. Spinal nerves pass between vertebrae and all parts of a body innervate.
At fractures and dislocations it can be injured and even the spinal cord is broken off. Treatment of spinal fractures depends on type of a change and degree of instability of vertebrae.
Changes can occur in any place along a backbone. 5-10% of spinal fractures happen in cervical department. In most cases (64%) damage happens in sternal and lumbar department, is frequent in T12-L1.
The people having osteoporosis, tumors and some forms of cancer which destroy bones are inclined to compression fractures of vertebras. The change looks as wedge-shaped defect of a vertebra.
When the intervertebral sheaves and/or disks connecting two vertebras together stretch or torn, bones can leave the plane. Dislocation of vertebrae can result in instability and a compression of a spinal cord. Such injuries usually demand surgical intervention for stabilization of vertebrae.
Spine injuries on the destruction dislocation type occur when the bone is broken and sheaves are torn. These changes are, as a rule, unstable, and often demand surgical treatment.
Additional diagnostic methods of spinal fracture include X-ray research, KT and MPT.
At the x-ray test use X-ray for viewing of bone vertebrae in a backbone that allows to specify the place of a change.
The Computer Tomography (CT) is the safe, noninvasive test which uses X-ray and the computer to make 2-dimensional images of your backbone. KT can be executed with a contrast agent which is entered into blood. It is an informative method for viewing of changes of bone structures.
The Magnetic and Resonant Tomography (MRT) is also the noninvasive test which uses magnetic field and radio-frequency waves to give a detailed idea of soft tissues of a backbone. Unlike a X-ray analysis, at MRT nerves and intervertebral disks are accurately visible. MRT is an informative method for assessment of damage of soft tissues, sheaves and intervertebral disks, and also for assessment of injury of a spinal cord.
Treatment of changes begins with anesthesia and stabilization of vertebrae to prevent further injury of a spinal cord. At a fracture of vertebras there can be also other damages which also need treatment. Depending on type of a change and its stability, there can be necessary surgical intervention.
Stable changes can demand only stabilization with a brace, such as a rigid collar (Miami J), cervicothoracic brackets (Minerva) for an upper fracture of a back, or grudopoyasnichnogo-sacral type of fixing (TLSO) for the lower fracture of a back. After 8 up to 12 weeks of a bracket, as a rule, act. Unstable fractures of a neck extension can be required to reconstruct a backbone in the correct situation.
Vertebroplastika and a kifoplastika is the minimum invasive procedures performed for treatment of the compression changes which are usually connected with osteoporosis and tumors of a spinal cord. At a vertebroplastika bone cement is entered through a hollow needle into a body of vertebrae.