- Symptoms of Bruises
- Reasons of Bruises
- Treatment of Bruises
Bruises are — mechanical damages of soft tissues without visible disturbance of an integrity of skin.
Symptoms of Bruises:
At bruises small blood vessels therefore interstitial hemorrhage develops are usually damaged. Its degree and prevalence depend on the field of damage, a motive energy and the area of the injuring subject. So, at small blows on force in a hip, buttocks, the spins rich with soft tissues arise limited bruises, is frequent without external manifestations and clinical symptoms. At bruises of joints damage of vessels of the capsule is possible that is followed by hemorrhage in a joint cavity. Hemorrhage in soft tissues leads to their treatment by blood. In case of the slanting direction of blow amotio of skin and hypodermic cellulose with formation of hematomas is possible. Hematomas with big cavities can be sacculated further from the outcome in the traumatic cysts filled with gemolizirovanny blood. In rare instances hematomas obyzvestvlyatsya, for example after hemorrhage in thickness by the four-head of a muscle of a hip. In areas where there pass large blood vessels (femoral, humeral arteries), sometimes there are bruises or anguishes of walls of vessels with the subsequent their thrombosis. The necrosis of soft tissues is as a result possible. At area bruises where peripheral nerves (most often elbow, beam and fibular) are located close to a bone, symptoms of loss of their function appear. Usually sensitive and motive disturbances quickly take place, but sometimes at intra trunk hemorrhages or a prelum a hematoma remain a long time.
Clinical signs of bruises of soft tissues of extremities or trunks which meet most often are pain in a place of application of force and traumatic hypostasis. After a while (term depends on hemorrhage depth) on skin bruise develops. By its sizes it is impossible to judge force or the nature of blow precisely. So, at deep bruises or at the increased fragility of vessels (at a hypovitaminosis With, elderly people) have extensive bruises which are going down the relation to the place of an injury by gravity. Color of bruise serves as important criterion for determination of prescription of a bruise.
Reasons of Bruises:
Arise at blow by a blunt object or when falling from small height on a flat surface. At bruises, as a rule, there are no rough anatomic damages of fabrics or bodies. Bruises can be a component of wounds, such wounds call hurt. Bruises are observed also at the closed fractures of the bones arising owing to direct stroke (for example, so-called a bumper changes).
Treatment of Bruises:
Treatment of bruises of soft tissues within the first days consists in topical administration of cold for the purpose of a hemostasis, reduction of pain reaction and hypostasis. For this purpose it is possible to put to the damaged area a bubble with ice, a hot-water bottle with cold water, etc. Apply a compressing bandage area of a bruise of extremities. Extensive bruises of extremities need to be differentiated with fractures and dislocations. In these cases impose the transport tire and the victim bring to surgical department. With 2 — 3 days for acceleration of a rassasyvaniye of hemorrhage appoint the warming compress, a warm hot-water bottle, heat baths, UVCh-therapy. Use massage and remedial gymnastics for prevention of development of contractures, especially at bruises of large joints or a circumarticular zone a bit later. In cases of formation of a hypodermic hematoma at a hemarthrosis the puncture and removal of blood is shown.
At bruises of a stomach and lumbar area damages of parenchymatous bodies — ruptures of a liver, spleen, kidneys are possible.
At considerable blow on force in a thorax damages of soft tissues and a lung are possible. Clinical signs of bruises of a lung are pain at breath, restriction of an excursion of a thorax. Shortening of a percussion sound and weakening of breath in a bruise zone is characteristic.
Often at the closed injuries of a breast there are heart bruises (for example, at blow of the driver a breast about a steering wheel of the car). Victims complain of pain in heart, quite often there is a collapse. Make electrocardiographic and echocardiographic researches for specification of the diagnosis.
At suspicion of a bruise of a stomach, breast or heart the emergency hospitalization in surgical department is shown.