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Insufficiency of function of a hypophysis


Insufficiency of function of a hypophysis is a disease at which the hypophysis (small gland, subjacent a brain) does not produce one or several hormones, or develops their insufficient quantity. It can occur owing to diseases of a hypophysis or a hypothalamus (department of a brain which contains the hormones controlling a hypophysis). If secretion of all hypophyseal hormones is reduced, or they are not developed at all, the disease is called a panhypopituitarism. This disease affects both children, and adults.

The hypophysis gives signals to other glands (for example, a thyroid gland) to produce hormones (for example, hormone of a thyroid gland). The hormones produced by a hypophysis and other glands have considerable impact on functions of an organism, such as growth, reproductive function, blood pressure and metabolism (mental and chemical processes of an organism). If one or several these hormones are not produced in necessary quantity, it can negatively affect functions of an organism. Insufficient development of cortisol or hormone of a thyroid gland demands immediate treatment while the lack of other hormones can not pose such threat for life.

The hypophysis produces several hormones. There are some important hormones:
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (AKTG). This hormone stimulates epinephral glands. AKTG stimulates epinephral glands to produce hormone cortisol which regulates the blood pressure and metabolism.
Thyritropic hormone (TTG). It is hormone which stimulates development and secretion of hormones of a thyroid gland (iron of hormonal system). Hormone of a thyroid gland regulates metabolism and is important for growth and development.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSG) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These are hormones which regulate sexual function of both floors. They are also known as gonadotropic or sex hormones (for example, estrogen and testosterone).
Somatotropic hormone (STG). This hormone stimulates the normal growth of bones and fabrics.
Prolactin. It is hormone which stimulates production of milk and growth of mammary glands at women.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADG). This hormone controls liquid loss by kidneys.

At insufficient function of a hypophysis one or several hypophyseal hormones are not developed. The lack of hormone leads to loss of function of gland or body which it controls.

Гипофиз: вид сверху и справа

Hypophysis: dorsal view and on the right

Symptoms of Insufficiency of function of a hypophysis:

At some people symptoms can gradually be absent or appear. Other people can have pronounced symptoms and suddenly appear. Symptoms depend on the reason, the speed of emergence and what hormone is produced in insufficient quantity.
The lack of AKTG causes fatigue, low blood pressure, weight reduction, weakness, a depression, nausea and vomiting.
The lack of TTG causes a lock, increase in weight, sensitivity by cold, decrease of the activity, weakness of muscles or the aching pain.
The lack of FSG and LG at women leads to an irregular menstrual cycle, lack of periods and infertility. At men the hair loss on a face and a body, weakness, lack of sexual activity, erectile dysfunction and infertility is observed.
The lack of STG at children leads to the low growth, fatty deposits on a waist and a face, bad general development. At adults decrease of the activity, breakdown and bad portability of an exercise stress, increase in weight, reduction of muscle bulk and feeling of uneasiness or depression is observed.
The lack of prolactin causes insufficient production of milk, fatigue, a hair loss under mice in women and on a pubis. At men symptoms are not observed.
The lack of ADG causes the strengthened feeling of thirst and an urination.

Reasons of Insufficiency of function of a hypophysis:

Depression of function of a hypophysis or hypothalamus leads to the low content of hormones or their absence. Injury of a hypophysis or a hypothalamus, and thereof, depression of function, can be caused by tumors. Injury of a hypophysis can be also caused by radiation, surgical intervention, an infection (for example, meningitis) and various other diseases. In certain cases the reason does not manage to be found out.

Treatment of Insufficiency of function of a hypophysis:

Drug treatment.

Drug treatment consists in gormonozamestitelny therapy and treatment of the cornerstone reason.

The drugs used at insufficiency of function of a hypophysis replace missing hormones.
Glucocorticoids (for example, a hydrocortisone) are applied in treatment of the insufficiency of adrenal glands caused by a lack of AKTG.
Replacement therapy by hormones of a thyroid gland is applied at depression of function of a thyroid gland (a disease at which the insufficient amount of hormones of a thyroid gland is produced). Such drugs as left thyroxine can be used (for example, Sintroid, Levoksil). The active dosage form influences growth and development of fabrics.
Lack of sex hormones treat by means of their substitution (for example, estrogen, testosterone).
Replacement therapy by testosterone (for example, Andro-LA, Androderm) is applied at a lack of sex hormones at men. Testosterone promotes and keeps development of secondary sexual characteristics (for example, growth of hair in the person) at a lack of male sex hormones.
Replacement therapy by estrogen (for example, Premarin), sometimes in combination with progesterone, is applied at a lack of sex hormones at women. Estrogen plays an important role in development and maintenance of female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics (for example, development of mammary glands).
Replacement therapy by a growth hormone (for example, Genotropin, Humatrop) is applied as necessary at a lack of hormone at children. The growth hormone stimulates the linear growth and growth of skeletal muscles and bodies. Therapy by a growth hormone can be also applied at shortage of hormone at adults, but it will not help them to grow.

Surgical treatment.

Depending on a look and the size of a tumor surgery can be performed.

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