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Hypophysis diseases


The hormones influencing work of all bodies and systems get to blood from special closed glands which are united in uniform endocrine system. These are adrenal glands, thyroid and epithelial bodies, ovaries (at women), seed plants and testicles — (at men), a pancreas, a hypothalamus and a hypophysis. Perhaps, in an organism there is no more hierarchical and disciplined system, than endocrine.

At top of the power there is a hypophysis — the small gland which is seldom exceeding the size a nail on the child's little finger. The hypophysis is in a brain (in its center) and controls work of the majority of closed glands tightly, excreting special hormones which manage production of other hormones. For example, the hypophysis throws out thyritropic hormone (TTG) which forces a thyroid gland to create thyroxine and triiodothyronine in blood. Some hormones of a hypophysis render direct effect, for example, somatotropic hubbub (STG) which is responsible for processes of growth and physical development of the child.

The shortcoming or excess of hormones of a hypophysis inevitably leads to a serious illness.

Анатомическое расположение гипофиза (макропрепарат)

Anatomic arrangement of a hypophysis (macrodrug)

Symptoms of Diseases of a hypophysis:

The lack of hormones of a hypophysis brings:

    * To a secondary lack of hormones of other closed glands, for example to a secondary hypothyroidism — deficit of hormones of a thyroid gland.
    * Besides, shortage of hormones of a hypophysis causes heavy physical disturbances. So, deficit of somatotropic hormone (STG) in the childhood results in dwarfism.
    * Not diabetes mellitus — at a lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADG is developed in a hypothalamus, then comes to a hypophysis from where it is allocated in blood)
    * The hypopituitarism — a lack of all hormones of a hypophysis - at children can be shown by a delay of sexual development, and at adults — sexual frustration. In general, the hypopituitarism leads to heavy disbolism which affect all systems of an organism.

Excess of hormones of a hypophysis gives a bright clinical picture, and displays of a disease strongly differ depending on what or what hormones exceed norm.

At a surplus of hormones of a hypophysis:

    * High level of prolactin (giperprolaktinemiya) at women is shown by disturbance of a menstrual cycle, infertility, a lactation (swelling of mammary glands and secretion of milk). At men the giperprolaktinemiya leads to decrease in sexual desire, impotence.
    * Excess of somatotropic hormone (STG) gave to the world of giants. If the disease begins at early age, then there is giantism if in mature - an acromegalia. According to the Guinness Book of Records, Robert Pershing Uodlou who was born in 1918 in the USA was the most tall man. Its growth made 272 centimeters (scope of hands of 288 centimeters). However, according to the domestic book of records the Miracle, the Russian citizen Fedor Makhov was the highest in world history. Its growth made 2 meters 85 centimeters weighing 182 kilograms. At an acromegalia at the patient hands and a foot are thickened, features become large, internals increase. It is followed by disturbances of cardiac performance, neurologic frustration.
    * Increase in level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (AKTG) leads to Itsenko-Cushing's disease. This serious illness is shown by osteoporosis, increase in arterial pressure, development of a diabetes mellitus, mental disturbances. The disease is followed by characteristic changes of appearance: weight loss of legs and hands, obesity in a stomach, shoulders, and also the person.

Reasons of Diseases of a hypophysis:

To understand the reasons of diseases of a hypophysis, it is necessary to remember that it is a part of a brain. Over it there pass optic nerves, from lateral faces — large brain vessels and third cranial nerves.

In most cases the tumor of the hypophysis — adenoma is the reason of excess of hormones of a hypophysis. At the same time the level of that hormone or hormones which make adenoma cells whereas the level of all other hormones can decrease considerably because of a hypophysis rest prelum increases. The growing adenoma is dangerous also that it squeezes nearby optic nerves, vessels and structures of a brain. Practically all patients to adenoma have headaches, visual frustration often meet.

Can be the reasons of deficit of hormones of a hypophysis:

    * defects of blood supply,
    * hemorrhage,
    * inborn underdevelopment of a hypophysis,
    * meningitis or encephalitis,
    * hypophysis prelum tumor,
    * craniocereberal injury,
    * some drugs,
    * radiation,
    * surgical intervention.

Treatment of Diseases of a hypophysis:

Treatment of diseases of a hypophysis is directed to normalization of level of hormones in blood, and in case of adenoma — reduction of pressure of a tumor by surrounding structures of a brain. At a lack of hormones of a hypophysis replacement hormonal therapy is applied: the person is given drugs analogs  of the necessary hormones. Such treatment often lasts for life. Fortunately, hypophysis tumors extremely seldom happen malignant. Nevertheless, their treatment — a difficult task for the doctor.

In treatment of tumors of a hypophysis use the following methods and their combination:

    * medicinal therapy;
    * surgical treatment — an oncotomy;
    * methods of radiation therapy.

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