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Anisacidosis (synonyms: анизакидоз - Russian, anisakiasis - English, anisakiase - fr.) - the zoonotic helminthosis which is characterized by a gastrointestinal tract disease, caused by parasitizing of larval stages of Anisakidae family nematodes in a human body.

Parasitizing at the person of larvae of nematodes of the sort Anisakis (a herring worm), Phocanema (a cod worm), etc. causes an acute disease with the expressed allergic symptomatology. Anizakioz is registered in America, Japan, the Netherlands. In all countries the activator parasitizes in fish from fresh-water, saltish and salty reservoirs.

Anizakidoz's symptoms:

The incubation interval of an anizakidoz makes from several hours to 7-14 days. In many respects, the clinical picture of a disease is caused by the place of localization of parasites. When finding larvae in an intestines gleam the symptomatology can be very scanty. At gastric localization (the most frequent form of a disease) of patients severe pain in epigastriums, nausea, vomiting, sometimes with blood disturbs. Subfebrile or febrile fever, development of allergic reactions of immediate type (a small tortoiseshell, a Quincke's edema) is noted.

In case of retrograde migration of larvae анизакид from a stomach in a gullet there are pain and irritation in a throat, cough. At an intestinal anizakidoz patients complain of pains in a navel and in the right ileal area, abdominal murmur, a meteorism. Emergence of a symptom complex of an acute abdomen characteristic of appendicitis or impassability of intestines is possible.

The current of an anizakidoz can be acute, subacute or chronic.

In mild cases of a course of a disease dispepsichesky frustration (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains) prevail. At a heavy current of an invasion there are pristupoobrazny abdominal pains, sometimes symptoms of intestinal impassability. The symptomatology of a peptic ulcer or a tumor is quite often observed.

The clinical picture of an anizakidoz can be rather heavy and simulate symptoms of an acute surgical disease of a stomach. However colicy pains, diffusion morbidity of a stomach are more often, fever and a leukocytosis develop in a week and more after consumption of fish. The disease usually spontaneously regresses against the background of conservative treatment.

Complications of an anizakidoz.
To serious complications of an intestinal anizakidoz the perforation of an intestinal wall and hit of intestinal contents in an abdominal cavity treats with development of peritonitis.

Anizakidoz's reasons:

Activators of an anizakidoz of the person - larval stages of development of helminths of childbirth: Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova, Hysterothylacium relating to Ascaridida Skrjabin et Schikhobalova group, 1940, to the Anisakidae Skrjabin et Korokhin family, 1945. As final owners of these helminths serve many marine mammals (cetacea, Pinnipedia), predatory sea fishes and fish-eating birds in whose digestive tract males and females анизакид parasitize. Average length of females is 60-65 mm, males - 50-55 mm. The body is spindle-shaped, narrowed by both ends (it is more narrowed by the head end). On the head end there are three lips.

Oosperms get to water where they leave a larva which is swallowed by the first intermediate owners - Crustacea, from the list of a krill, most often belonging to the Euphausiidae family.

As additional owners serve many sea fishes, mollusks, larger Crustacea eating small Crustacea. Larvae анизакид in an organism of intermediate owners be localized in a perigastrium, on a surface or in various internals and in muscles of fishes. They are in translucent capsules - cysts, or without them. The sizes of cysts average 3-7 × 1-2 mm. Larvae анизакид which do not intsistirutsya, for example P.dicipiens have length from 1,5 to 6 cm.

Infection of final owners occurs when eating of the infected intermediate owners by them: fishes, Crustacea and mollusks. If larger intermediate owners eat smaller which are infested by larvae, then these larvae collect in a body of larger, predatory fish.

Anizakidoz's treatment:

Treatment of an anizakidoz is not developed. It is possible to expect effect of use of Mebendazolum and thiabendazole. At the phenomena intestinal not passability resect an affected area of a gut. At timely treatment the forecast good.

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