Fever of Chikungunya
- Reasons of fever of Chikungunya
- Symptoms of fever of Chikungunya
- Treatment of fever of Chikungunya
Fever of Chikungunya - the acute transmissible disease which is characterized by fever, intoxication and a hemorrhagic syndrome.
Fever of Chikungunya is for the first time described in Tanzania in 1952-1953. Then it was registered in Zaire, Zambia, the Republic of South Africa, Angola, Thailand, Burma, Singapore and India. The virus strains allocated in Asia differ from the African isolates a little, but the diseases caused by Asian options are not followed by hemorrhagic manifestations.
Reasons of fever of Chikungunya:
Chikungunye (CHIKV) - an arbovirus, that is a virus the alphavirus which is transmitted from insects, a sort transmitted by means of stings of mosquitoes of a sort of kusak. It is possible to get infection on the Indian subcontinent, in Africa or Asia, and also mosquitoes carriers extended also in Europe and North America presently. The first European disease outbreak was chikunguny in Italy. Believe that the chikungunye virus (the word that which skryuchivat" means ") has the African origin. Like a virus of yellow fever, in the nature it circulates between monkeys and mosquitoes of Aedes of a subgenus of Stegomyia, and in city conditions is transferred from the person to the person by one of these mosquitoes - Aedes aegypti. The same cycle was established also in Asia where chikungunye extended quite widely. In the rural areas of Africa incidence has sporadic character, and in the cities of Africa and Asia periodically there are epidemics.
The virus of a chikungunye of people can receive at a sting of a female of a mosquito, and also the virus is transmitted from the person to the person. Generally carriers are types of Aedes aegypti and a kusak white and motley (A. albopictus) (they have as well many other diseases). These mosquitoes can bite for all daylight; peak of aggression early morning and end of the second half of day. Both look are bitten out of the room, but A. aegypti can and indoors. On average the disease develops for 4-8 day after a sting the infected mosquito, but the period can make from 2 to 12 days. In Africa in transfer of fever of Chikungunya are involved as well some other species of mosquitoes, including views from the A. furcifer-taylori and A. luteocephalus group. There are actual data that some animals, including primacies can be carriers.
Symptoms of fever of Chikungunya:
Fever of Chikungunya reminds fever of a dengue, but the disease proceeds much easier. The incubation interval of fever of Chikungunya makes 3-12 days. The beginning of a disease is accompanied by typical symptoms of fever of Chikungunya - strong arthralgias and the backbone pains immobilizing the patient. The bent provisions in joints relieve pains a little. Among other symptoms the insignificant headache, anorexia, locks are noted. Fever is two-wave: waves till some days are divided by the apireksiya period in 1-3 days. On a trunk and an extensor surface of extremities there is makulo-papular rash which is followed by an itch. V. I. Pokrovsky emphasizes that no hemorrhagic manifestations at hemorrhagic fevers of Chikungunya happen, their existence excludes a possibility of hemorrhagic fever of Chikungunya.
In 6-10 days the condition of patients is normalized. Lethal outcomes are not registered.
At diagnosis of fever of Chikungunya various methods can be used. Serological tests, for example, the immunosorbentny analysis using the fixed enzymes (ELISA) which are able to define presence of antibodies to a virus of a chikungunya of IgM and IgG. The highest levels of presence of antibodies of IgM are reached in 3-5 weeks after end of an incubation interval and remains within 2 months. The virus can be isolated during the first days after hit it in blood. There are various methods of polymerase chain reaction with the return transcriptase (PTsR-OT), but sensitivity of these methods is various, and some of them are suitable also for clinical diagnosing. Are received from clinical samples products of PTsR-OT are also used for genotyping of a virus that in turn allows to compare samples of viruses from various geographical areas.
Treatment of fever of Chikungunya:
Fever of Chikungunya seldom takes the form menacing for life.
There is no special treatment of fever of Chikungunya, but for pain relief and against swelling it is possible to use anesthetics and nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs. Important: it is not necessary to take aspirin!
Treatment of people of Chikungunya affected with a virus of fever to be carried out only in the conditions of a hospital. Pathogenetic therapy on which means reach improvement of functions of the bodies affected by a disease, normalization of a metabolism, increase in nonspecific resistance and immune responsiveness of an organism is shown to patients.
As it was already told above, at a heavy current of symptoms the main efforts in treatment of fever of Chikungunya need to be directed to decrease in temperature, reduction of intoxication, disposal of a pain syndrome, etc. life-threatening manifestations.
In treatment of a disease strengthening of a vascular wall is also important for what to patients with fever of Chikungunya haemo static treatment is appointed.
At strong excitement at patients soothing medicines are shown them.