Allergic reactions (Allergy)
- Symptoms of Allergic reactions (Allergy)
- Reasons of Allergic reactions (Allergy)
- Treatment of Allergic reactions (Allergy)
Allergy (other - Greek — "another, other, others" and — "influence") — supersensitivity of immune system of an organism at repeated influences of allergen on earlier sensibilized this allergen an organism.
Symptoms of Allergic reactions (Allergy):
The allergy is characterized by the general or local inflammatory answer to allergens. Local symptoms:
* Nose: swelled mucous a nose (allergic rhinitis)
* Eyes: reddening and pains in the field of a conjunctiva (allergic conjunctivitis)
* Upper respiratory tracts: the bronchospasm, goose breathing, and an asthma, sometimes arise true attacks of asthma.
* Ears: Feeling of completeness, perhaps pain and decrease in hearing because of decrease in a drainage of an Eustachian tube.
* Skin: various rashes. Perhaps: eczema, urticaria and contact dermatitis. Typical places of localization at a food way of penetration of allergen: elbow bends (symmetrically), stomach, groin.
* Head: Sometimes a headache which meets at some types of an allergy.
The systematic allergic answer is also called an anaphylaxis. Depending on expressiveness level it can cause skin reactions, a bronchospasm, swelled, hypotonia, a coma and even death.
* Hay fever and meadow dermatitis — examples of often found easy allergic reaction. A large number of people has this disease. It arises at contact of the sensibilized person with air-borne pollen. Asthmatics have the allergy caused by dust particles. In addition to allergens from the environment, some medicines can also cause allergic reactions.
Reasons of Allergic reactions (Allergy):
Immune responses (reaction of hypersensitivity of the I type) at which in a human body antibodies (immunoglobulins E) for specific proteins are developed belong to an allergy. When these substances lead to an organism hyper sensitization, they are called allergens. Here it is necessary to be able to distinguish an allergy and autoimmune reaction: autoimmune process arises when usual body tissues are changed under the influence of some disturbing factors in such a way that in proteins of these fabrics antigenic determinants appear and open and there is a sensitization to the acquired autoantigens.
The first type of hypersensitivity is characterized by the excessive activation of mast cells (mastocytes) and basophiles immunoglobulins E (IgE) passing into the general inflammatory answer which can lead to various symptoms as high-quality, for example, cold, an itch, and life-threatening — an acute anaphylaxis, a Quincke's edema.
Allergy — often found disease. Numerous data confirm existence of genetic predisposition to an allergy. So, the parents having an allergy are subject to bigger risk to have the child with the same pathology, than healthy couples. However strict compliance of hypersensitivity in relation to certain allergens between parents and children is not observed.
Treatment of Allergic reactions (Allergy):
Perhaps, the most important point is elimination of contact with allergens from the environment. Drug treatment of an allergy is quite limited. As throughout already quite long span searches of an effective method of treatment of an allergy did not bring obvious result, it is necessary to recognize that the modern medicine did not get into an essence of an allergy, process of its emergence and development yet.
Immunotherapy. Desensitization and desensitization — specific forms of an immunotherapy at which the patient is gradually vaccinated by the accruing doses of a specific antigen. It can lead both to decrease in weight, and to complete elimination of hypersensitivity. The essence of a method consists in stimulation of secretion of IgG ("blocking antibodies") which connect the antigen which got to an organism before it reacts about IgE (cosecreted much at hypersensitivity of the I type) and by that prevent development of allergic reaction.
Other form of an immunotherapy includes intravenous injections of monoclones of anti-IgE which connect free IgE and IgE on a surface of lymphocytes In that serves as a signal to IgE destruction. They do not contact IgE fixed on a surface of basophiles and mastocytes by means of Fc of receptors, otherwise they would cause development of allergic reaction. The first agent from this group is омализумаб (omalizumab).
Such injections become regularly, at the same time constantly increase a dose. When carrying out an immunotherapy within several months 2 times a week it is necessary to visit the doctor. The dose of drug raises each time until the exact dose of medicine is established. If injections help, then visit of the doctor has to be each 2-4 weeks within several years. At this time symptoms of an allergy will be weaker, less frequent and the allergy can pass absolutely.
Medicines. Some medicines have property to block action of mediators of an allergy, preventing activation of cells and process of degranulation. Antihistaminic drugs, a cortisone, Epinephrinum (adrenaline), theophylline and кромогликат sodium concern to them. These medicines reduce manifestation of symptoms of an allergy, but are practically not used in its long treatment. They can be applied for ambulance having an anaphylaxis. Therefore patients sensitive to stings of insects, nuts, mollusks and so forth usually carry with themselves the syringe with a single dose of adrenaline.
At allergic diseases sometimes treat with the small, accruing histamine doses. Assume that the organism at the same time gains resistance to a histamine and it predisposition to allergic reactions decreases. Also there is a way of individual selection of a dosage of a histamine, proceeding from the test of braking of natural emigration of leukocytes with medicines (TTEEL) according to A. D. Ado (The dosed immunotherapy a histamine)
Besides, immunoglobulin of the person antiallergic", allocated by the pharmaceutical organizations from donor blood is produced ".
For treatment of a food and medicinal allergy enterosorbents can be used.