Poisoning with manganese
- Symptoms of Poisoning with manganese
- Reasons of Poisoning with manganese
- Treatment of Poisoning with manganese
Poisoning with manganese is usually connected with chronic receipt it in an organism through airways, a digestive tract or in the form of impurity of drugs. For the first time "marganizm" was described in 1837 by James Cooper. The brain is most sensitive to excess of manganese therefore already at initial stages the slowed-down reaction, irritability, changes of mood, a kompulsiya is noted. Longer influence of manganese leads to development of parkinsonism, at the same time the wrong diagnosis "Parkinson's disease" is sometimes made.
Symptoms of Poisoning with manganese:
The clinical picture of chronic poisoning with manganese at early stages is defined by functional disturbances of the highest departments of the central nervous system (a vegetative and asthenic syndrome: increased fatigue, drowsiness, a headache, delay of mental processes (bradipsikhiya), decrease in criticism to the state. The last circumstance happens the reason of the late request of patients for medical care when there are already expressed signs of organic lesion of a brain in the form of parkinsonism which first symptoms appear against the background of the vegetative and asthenic syndrome described above, quickly progress and in 3 — 6 months lead to the expressed clinical picture of parkinsonism. Depending on an originality of motive frustration of E. A. Drogichin allocates three forms of manganese parkinsonism: spastiko-bradykinetic, hypotonic - bradykinetic and spastiko-paretic with the athetosis phenomena. Feature of manganese encephalopathy is parkinsonism combination to violent laughter, decrease in intelligence, loss of interest to surrounding. Gradually emotional dullness, intellectual inferiority increases. Lack of hyperkinesias and oculomotor frustration, and also steady progressing of signs of damage of a brain even on condition of the termination of contact with manganese is characteristic. Cases of development of polyneuropathy are described.
Reasons of Poisoning with manganese:
Poisoning occurs at workers-welders. The set of claims against producers of the welding equipment charges them with the insufficient notification about concentration and danger of vapors of manganese. Some kustarno the made drugs contain manganese (in connection with use for their preparation of potassium permanganate) which accumulation leads finally to what in domestic literature is called "manganese encephalopathy". In the countries of the former USSR it катинон and меткатинон, the ketonic analogs of amphetamine and Metamphetaminum received by handicraft oxidation of a fenilpropanolamin (катинон) and according to ephedrine/pseudoephedrine (меткатинон) potassium permanganate. In the West in this role the "Bazooka" made of cocaine with manganous carbonate use acts. Also as sources are noted the contaminated drinking water, fuel MMT additive which during the operation of the engine partially turns into manganous phosphates and manganese sulfate and comes to the atmosphere, and MANEB pesticide.
Treatment of Poisoning with manganese:
In an initial stage of poisoning when functional disorders of nervous activity take place, the means normalizing cortical processes of braking and excitement for the purpose of improvement of a dream, elimination of a headache, increase in working capacity are recommended (bromine, caffeine, Seduxenum, Belloidum, белласпон, a hydrotherapy, etc.). At emergence of symptoms of parkinsonism appoint symptomatic means for decrease in a muscle tone, salivation and normalization of other functions: thiamin, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamine, ascorbic acid, Tropacinum, Cyclodolum, Deparkinum, артан, hydrotherapy, physiotherapy exercises.