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Flat-footedness - deformation of a form of foot with decrease in its arches. At such deformation, feet completely lose the spring and shock-absorbing abilities.

In a normality of stop of the person has two arches - longitudinal (along foot on its inner edge) and cross (located under the bases of fingers).
Both arches of foot perform very important function - deduction of balance and depreciation of the jolting arising when walking. But if muscles and a linking of feet cease to work and become weak, then there is a disturbance of a normal form of foot - it settles and becomes absolutely flat, losing the main function - spring.

In this case joints of legs (coxofemoral, knee, talocrural) and a backbone are forced to compensate all loading which was undertaken before by feet. And as by the nature joints and a backbone are not intended for this purpose, they cope with this function quite badly and very quickly fail.

For this reason many feel a dorsodynia and legs, but not all understand that the prime cause to all this is flat-footedness. Flat-footedness - a disease which consequence the bystry exhaustion when walking is, pains in with feet, knees, hips and a waist.

Pains begin to be shown when the organism does not have forces any more to provide normal and safe movement. Talocrural, knee and coxofemoral joints suffer because of flat-footedness, and also the pathological bearing develops. What finally, as a result of disturbance of basic system, can lead to arthrosis and scoliosis. Also development of a varicosity is connected with flat-footedness.

Therefore it is very important that muscles and a linking of feet was strong and supported foot in the raised state, removing loading from joints of legs and a backbone.

It is interesting that flat-footedness occurs as at people of sedentary professions, and walking all the working day. It is connected with the fact that in the first case of a muscle and a sheaf become weak, due to the lack of loadings, and in the second case - loadings too big and sheaves and muscles simply do not cope with them.



Flat-footedness reasons:

- badly picked up footwear (tight footwear with pointed noses, high heels and platforms);
- pregnancy and increase in body weight, as muscular and in a consequence of obesity;
- genetic predisposition: genetic deviations in development of sheaves, muscles and bones of foot and inborn weakness of the muscular and copular device;
- injuries: injuries of feet, a fracture of an anklebone and a calcaneus, bruises and cracks of cartilages, ruptures of sheaves, injury of the muscles and sheaves strengthening the foot arch;
- diseases: rickets and as a result weakening and softness of bones which are very easily deformed, of a complication after poliomyelitis - paralysis of muscles of a sole and a shin;
- an insufficient exercise stress, and as a result weakness of muscles and sheaves - "sedentary" work;
- an excess exercise stress - "standing" work, interest in running and hopping sports.

As you can see, there is a lot of reasons of flat-footedness, but the main reason, about 8 of 10 cases is bad development of muscles and a linking of foot. Therefore for the correct formation of the arch it is necessary to train them constantly. Without loading of a muscle of foot become weak and not in forces to support foot in normally raised state, as is the reason of flat-footedness.

Flat-footedness symptoms:

your old footwear is worn out and worn-out from the inside, especially it is well visible if footwear has a heel;
legs very quickly get tired when walking and standing work;
after big exercise stresses feet begin to hurt;
at the end of the day the fatigue and an onychalgia, feeling of weight, a leg appears as if "are poured by lead", puffiness, even spasms are possible;
in anklebones puffiness appears;
circulation on heels turns into continuous torture;
the leg as if grew in a size, both on width, and on length therefore it is necessary to buy footwear one size bigger, and old footwear you do not get any more;
at the last stage of a disease in addition to legs the waist begins to hurt, circulation in footwear becomes torture, and onychalgias can be combined with headaches.

Many listed symptoms of flat-footedness can correspond to a varicosity therefore at the first emergence of pain in the field of foot and a shin it is necessary to address the orthopedist immediately.

Longitudinal flat-footedness and its symptoms:
fatigue in legs, pressing on feet or the middle of a sole causes pain, the back of foot swells by the evening;
severe and constant pains in feet, in anklebones and shins, it becomes very difficult to pick up the correct footwear;
in addition to pains in feet, shins often there is a back pain, the longitudinal arch externally is not swept up any more, the heel is completely spread, foot is edematous, an ankle joint трудноподвижен, it becomes almost impossible to walk in footwear of mass production.

Metatarsus latus and its symptoms:
- disappearance of the cross arch of foot, and as a result deformation of fingers of foot;
- pains in front department of foot, a skin omozolennost;
- emergence of molotkoobrazny fingers.

Types of flat-footedness:

As we already spoke foot of the person has two arches therefore first of all all types of flat-footedness are divided into longitudinal flat-footedness (decrease in the longitudinal arch of foot) and a metatarsus latus (decrease in the cross arch). According to foot can increase both in length, and in width. If at the person flattening of the longitudinal and cross arch at the same time is observed, then speak about the combined flat-footedness or as it on another is called the metatarsus latus is longitudinal. At the same time both types meet very often, but prevails from two usually metatarsus latus.

Also all types of flat-footedness can be divided on inborn and acquired. But here too everything is very simple. Inborn flat-footedness which treat from the first days of appearance of the kid on light meets very seldom and is a consequence of a malformation of fabrics of a fruit. Therefore generally flat-footedness always is acquired.

The acquired flat-footedness meets at any age and happens several types:

Traumatic flat-footedness is a consequence of fractures of bones of foot and an ankle joint, and also damage of soft muscular tissue and sheaves which strengthen the foot arch.

In a consequence of the postponed poliomyelitis, and also as a result of paralysis of muscles of foot and tibial muscles, can arise - paralytic flat-footedness.

Rachitic flat-footedness is a consequence of the postponed rickets. Rickets breaks the correct formation of bones of foot. Bones of foot become more brittle and under the influence of loadings of stop flat-footedness is deformed and is formed.

The most common form is - static flat-footedness (80% of all cases) which reasons can be:
- excess weight;
- genetic predisposition to weak muscles and linking of foot;
- excess weight;
- a weak linking and muscles of foot and a shin, as a result of small physical activity and lack of physical trainings, especially at people of "sedentary" professions;
- inconvenient and tight footwear;
- long loads of legs and feet (high heel, pregnancy, people of "standing" professions).

Treatment of flat-footedness:

At symptoms of flat-footedness it is necessary to address the orthopedist. The basis of treatment is made by special gymnastics which is carried out in house conditions daily. At the same time it is useful to combine individually picked up exercises with usual, strengthening the muscular and copular device groans. Also daily heat baths are recommended (water temperature 35-36 C) to knees, massage of muscles of foot and the head. In some cases apply special insoles - instep supports which raise the limit arch of foot. The forecast in many respects depends on a development stage, started a case can demand prolonged treatment, wearing special orthopedic footwear and even an operative measure.

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