The hemodialysis is one of methods of extrarenal clarification of blood. It is based on the principle of penetration of substances through a semipermeable membrane that allows to remove toxic substances and products of metabolism from blood. Need for a hemodialysis arises at a serious illness of kidneys or at receipt in blood of bigger amount of toxins, than healthy kidneys can remove (for example, in case of poisonings).
Indications to use.
Need of carrying out a hemodialysis is established by doctors depending on the diagnosis and a condition of the patient.
The main indications to carrying out a hemodialysis the following:
- acute and chronic renal failure;
- poisonings with the dialyzed poisons (unfortunately, not all toxic substances can be removed from an organism with this method);
- overdose of medicines;
- heavy disturbances of electrolytic composition of blood.
It is necessary to understand that at chronic diseases of kidneys begin to carry out a hemodialysis when the renal failure does not give in to conservative therapy any more and passes into an end-stage. The hemodialysis in such situation is method of a maintenance therapy.
Principle of action.
Devices for a hemodialysis consist of three components: devices for supply of blood, the device for preparation and giving of a dialysis fluid and the dialyzer. Dialyzer main part of the device. Its major functional element is the semipermeable membrane which is produced from natural materials on the basis of cellulose, or from synthetic materials. The blood which is taken away from the patient's artery is passed via the dialyzer and is on the one hand from a semipermeable membrane while solution, on the electrolytic structure similar to the circulating blood, collects on the other hand from it. Water and unnecessary waste products of an organism and toxins which are contained in blood are filtered through this membrane. Proteins, uniform elements of blood, a bacterium and substance with a molecular weight more than 30000 do not pass through a membrane. The purified blood then is returned to the patient's organism through a vein.
Procedure of a hemodialysis.
Before the procedure of dialysis of the patient the doctor examines, measures the arterial pressure, pulse and temperature. Then to the patient put vascular access and connect to the dialysis device. During the procedure conduct constant observation of a condition of the patient. Upon termination of a hemodialysis apply an aseptic bandage area of installation of a catheter. The doctor determines duration and frequency of sessions individually for each patient.
- arterial hypotension;
- muscular spasms;
- nausea and vomiting;
- infectious diseases.
Prevention of complications:
Because the hemodialysis has a set of complications, it is unusually important to observe recommendations of the treating doctor: to scrupulously take the appointed medicine, to keep to a diet, to have routine inspections at specialists and to make necessary tests