- Symptoms of Hemorrhagic diathesis
- Reasons of Hemorrhagic diathesis
- Treatment of Hemorrhagic diathesis
Hemorrhagic diathesis is an extensive group of the diseases of system of blood with tendency to the raised bleeding differing with origins and mechanisms of development, methods of their diagnosis and treatment.
Symptoms of Hemorrhagic diathesis:
Types of hemorrhagic diathesis:
At the heart of development of the raised bleeding allocate three main types of hemorrhagic diathesis with the corresponding mechanisms of development of this state.
* The diathesis connected with disturbance of permeability of a vascular wall: a hemorrhagic vasculitis, avitaminosis With, a hemorrhagic teleangiectasia and others. Most often meet at avitaminosis, infectious diseases (a meningococcal infection), an amyloidosis, a diabetes mellitus, long reception of corticosteroids.
* The diathesis connected with change of quantity of thrombocytes and their properties: hemorrhagic thrombasthenia, Werlhof's disease and others. Most often meet at viral infections, influence of radiation, chemotherapy, immunity disturbances, diseases of a liver, kidneys and other diseases.
* The diathesis connected with change of coagulant system: hemophilias And, In, With, etc. Have not only inborn character, but can arise at collagenoses, reception of medicines (anticoagulants, fibrinolitik), at avitaminosis, enteropathies and other diseases.
Main displays of hemorrhagic diathesis:
At all hemorrhagic diathesis the leading manifestation is the raised bleeding with signs, characteristic of each type of diathesis.
At defeat of a vascular wall on mucous membranes, a body and extremities there is small hemorrhagic rash of various form. And as similar rash develops also on a mucous membrane of internals, at patients emergence of abdominal pains, emergence in urine of impurity of blood (microhematuria) is often noted, sometimes there is a puffiness and morbidity in large joints.
At defeat of a platelet component of a blood coagulation at insignificant traumatization and even for no apparent reason on skin of extremities and bodies appear hemorrhages of various size, they have "motley" coloring that is connected with various terms of their emergence. Other frequent manifestation of this type of hemorrhagic diathesis is tendency to periodic bleedings (nasal, uterine, intestinal, gastric and another) and to development of anemia. Retinal apoplexies of eyes with sight loss, in a brain with development of symptomatology of a stroke are possible.
At disturbance of coagulability of blood (hemophilia) the disease is shown in the form of the hemorrhages arising in the first years of life of the child at the minimum injuries, bruises and even small scratches emergence of intramuscular hemorrhages and a hemarthrosis – outpourings of blood in a cavity of joints is possible. Considerable danger is constituted by any operations, even very accurate odontectomy the stomatologist can lead to long bleeding.
Reasons of Hemorrhagic diathesis:
Hemorrhagic diathesis is eurysynusic. On the origin they can be:
* primary (as independently arisen disease);
* secondary, developing at various diseases (sepsis, infectious diseases, poisonings, development of autoimmune and allergic processes, etc.).
* inborn (hereditary) hemorrhagic diathesis which accompanies the person during all life give in to therapeutic correction (hemophilias, Glantsmann's disease, a hemorrhagic teleangiectasia);
* the acquired hemorrhagic diathesis connected with various diseases in a varying degree influencing processes of a blood coagulation and a condition of a vascular wall; at elimination of the main symptoms of these diseases also displays of diathesis (a hemorrhagic vasculitis, a hemorrhagic purpura of various nature, a trombotsitopatiya, defeat of walls of vessels, as a rule, disappear at liver diseases, toxicoinfections, poisonings with medicines, etc.).
Treatment of Hemorrhagic diathesis:
Holding medical actions is based on the accounting of all factors of development of this or that type of hemorrhagic diathesis, bleeding mechanism. At the same time causal and symptomatic therapy is most often used:
* at a vasculitis and a Werlhof's disease – corticosteroid drugs;
* at avitaminosis With – ascorbic acid, Rutinum, PP vitamin;
* at the repeating massive bleedings – operational treatment (removal of a spleen);
* at hemophilia – transfusion is fresher than blood or the plasma containing the blood-coagulation factors which are absent at the patient, vitamin K;
* at development of anemia – iron preparations, food with sufficient protein content and vitamins;
* at a hemarthrosis – a puncture of a joint and removal of the blood which streamed in his cavity;
* carrying out complex of treatment-and-prophylactic actions (physiotherapy exercises, physiotherapeutic treatment, balneotherapy etc.), phytotherapy.