- Typhinia symptoms
- Typhinia reasons
- Treatment of the Typhinia
Typhinia (Latin typhus recurrens) — the collective name combining epidemic (an activator carrier — a louse) and local (an activator carrier — a tick) the spirokhetoza proceeding with alternation of attacks of fever and the periods of normal body temperature.
The first attack begins suddenly: the short-term fever is replaced by heat and a headache; there are a joint pain and muscles (mainly sural), nausea and vomiting. Temperature quickly rises, pulse frequent, skin dry. The nervous system is involved in pathological process, often there is a delirium. At height of an attack appear various form of an enanthesis, the spleen and a liver increase, jaundice sometimes develops. During fever signs of damage of heart, and also bronchitis or pneumonia can be noted. The attack proceeds from two to six days then temperature falls to normal or subfebrile and the health of the patient quickly improves. However in 4 — 8 days the following attack with the same symptoms develops. Cases without repeated attacks are rare.
One-two repeated attacks which come to an end with an absolute recovery and temporary immunity are characteristic of a vshiny typhinia. Four and more attacks of fever are characteristic of a tick-borne typhinia, they it is shorter and easier on clinical manifestations though the second attack can be heavier, than the first.
Activators of a typhinia belong to sort Borrelia spirochetes, in particular, one of the most widespread causative agents of typhus epidemic — Obermeyer Borellia Obermeieri's borelliya opened in 1868 by Otto Obermeyer.
Tick-borne typhinia — a zoonotic transmissible disease. Activators are many types of borreliya: Century of duttonii, V. of persica, V. of hispanica, V. of latyschewii, V. caucasica widespread in certain geographical zones. These borreliya are similar to the activator of an epidemic typhinia on morphology, resistance to action of factors of the environment, biological properties.
Carriers. The tick-borne typhinia is an obligate transmissible disease. It is transferred by mites of the Argasidae family, such as Ornitodorus papillares (settlement tick), Argas persicus (Persian tick). Ticks are reservoir owners of spirochetes. A tank of borreliya of different types in the natural centers are also different types of rodents. Infectiousness of mites remains during all their life (about 10 years). Also transovarial transfer of activators which get into an oviduct and ova of arthropods takes place. In the natural centers there is a continuous circulation of the activator from rodents to mites and back. The animal and parasitizing on them ticks usually collect in holes, caves, but find for themselves dwelling and in various economic structures in settlements.
The person catches at stings of a tick. On site inoculations of the activator the papule (primary affect) is formed. The pathogeny and clinical manifestations of tick-borne typhinias are similar to epidemic. Diseases arise in warm season with activation of life activity of mites more often.
The population of areas, endemic on a tick-borne typhinia, gets a certain degree of immunity to the circulating activators — in blood serum antibodies to the borreliya widespread in this region are found in them. Mainly visitors get sick.
Carriers of an epidemic typhinia — louses of Pediculus humanus capitis (head), P. humanus humanus (clothes). The louse, насосавшись the patient's blood, becomes capable to infect the person during all the life as for louses of a borreliya of a nepatogenna, and in a hemolymph of an insect microorganisms well breed. Transovarial transfer of borreliya at louses does not exist. The person catches, rubbing the hemolymph of louses containing borreliya (during the combing of a sting, crush of an insect) (kontaminativny infection). In the surrounding environment of a borreliya quickly perish. At action of temperature of 45 — 48 °C death occurs in 30 min. An epidemic typhinia only people are ill.
Treatment of the Typhinia:
For treatment of an epidemic typhinia use antibiotics (penicillin, levomycetinum, chlortetracyclin) and arsenous drugs (Novarsenolum). At treatment of tick-borne typhus antibiotics of a tetracycline row, levomycetinum, ampicillin are used.