- Trichuriasis symptoms
- Trichuriasis reasons
- Treatment of the Trichuriasis
Trichuriasis - one of nematodoses, geohelminthoses, eurysynusic on the globe, characterize by preferential gastrointestinal pathology.
The trichuriasis, as well as ascaridosis - a prirodnoendemichesky invasion, a geohelminthosis and the only source of an invasion is the person. The main factors of transfer of the activator are the vegetables, berries, table greens used by the person without heat treatment. Infection can occur also through the hands contaminated by the soil.
Optimum conditions for development of eggs are created in the soil at a temperature from +26 °C to +30 °C close to relative humidity of air to 100%, humidity of the soil of 18 - 22%. In these optimal conditions of egg become invasive in 17 - 25 days. However eggs in external environment can develop in temperature limits +15 - + 35 °C, and the term of their development fluctuates from two weeks to 3 - 4 months.
At the same time in epidemiology of a trichuriasis there are some features in comparison with an ascaridosis caused by activator biology. In particular, at a trichuriasis the activator parasitizes in a human body up to 5 years (at an ascaridosis 1 year), i.e. the source of an invasion contaminates the soil is longer and in incidence of a trichuriasis there is no seasonality. Development of eggs of a threadworm happens at higher humidity of the soil within 18 - 22%. Under favorable conditions for egg of threadworms keep viability in the soil from 10 to 36 months.
They can develop in external environment at more high temperature and atmospheric humidity (not lower than 85%), the period of development of a larva is more long, resistance of eggs to ultraviolet rays and to drying, influence of high and low temperatures is higher. Therefore though spread of an ascaridosis and a trichuriasis in general matches, but the border of distribution of a trichuriasis is a little shifted to the South.
The clinical picture of a trichuriasis is various and depends on intensity of an invasion, reactivity of an organism and existence of associated diseases.
At not intensive invasion the trichuriasis proceeds subclinically. At clinically expressed forms symptoms of pathology of digestive tract and a nervous system, however the pathology characteristic only of this invasion usually are observed, at a trichuriasis is absent.
Disturbances of activity of digestive tract are shown in a loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, hypersalivation. Patients note the pains in the right ileocecal area reminding pains at appendicitis, the pains of skhvatkoobrazny character in the field of an epigastrium simulating clinic of gastritis, a peptic ulcer. Sometimes at a trichuriasis at infested the colitis picture with ponosa or locks develops, is more rare with existence in excrements of visible slime and blood. From the parties of a nervous system at a trichuriasis complaints to a headache, dizziness, irritability, a bad dream can take place, is more rare - unconscious states, convulsive attacks.
The activator of a trichuriasis is not yes the sorts Trichocephalus Schrank, 1788, the families Trichocephalidae, Baird, 1853 - Trichocephalus trichiurus threadworm. The generic name of helminth consists of two Greek words: thrix - a hair, Kephale - the head (the trichoid head) that reflects a shape of a body of helminth. In the Russian medical literature of former years he can be met under the name - хлыстовик.
Threadworms - thin nematodes which front end of a body making about 2/3 lengths it is threadlike will extend, and back - short and thick, At females the back end in the form of sablevidno curved arch, at a male; it is spiral-shaped twirled.
Length of a male is 3 - 4,5 cm, females - 3,5 - 5,5 cm. During lifetime body of helminth white, sometimes grayish and reddish, cuticle cross ischerchena. The alimentary system is presented by the actinostome deprived of lips which conducts in a long and thin gullet on which front surface digestive glands are located in one row owing to what the gullet looks necklace-shaped. In the place of transition of a front thin part of a body of a threadworm to thickened the gullet passes into the intestinal tube which is coming to an end with an anus on its back end.
The reproductive system at a female unpaired a sexual opening is on border of transition of the threadlike front end to a reinforced back part. At a male the reproductive system also unpaired also comes to an end with the bent and pointed spicule (2,5 mm) which is in the spikulyarny vagina covered with numerous spinules.
Eggs of a threadworm of yellowish-brown or golden-yellow color, barrel-shaped (limonoobrazny) form, on poles have colourless "pro-barrels"). These cork educations represent protrusions of an internal cover. The egg-shell smooth, thick consists of four covers. Internal fibrous cover; serves for protection of egg against chemical damages, the others from mechanical. In length of egg have 47 - 54 microns, in width of 22-23 microns.
Eggs leave a uterus of a female prior to crushing, internal contents their fine-grained, their further development and ripening comes to the end in external environment.
Treatment of the Trichuriasis:
Apply Naftamonum tablets, soluble in intestines (not to confuse to Naftamonum "To"), in the doses specified for Naftamonum "To".
Treatment of a trichuriasis is carried out in a hospital. Also diphezyl is shown. It is appointed for 1 h to food by 3 times a day within 5 days in daily doses: adult — 5 g, to children of 2,5 — 5 years - 3 g, 6 — 10 years — 3,5 — 4 g, 11 — 15 years.4,5 g For deworming use also dithiazanine, methyl-isopropyl phenol, Mebendazolum (Vermoxum).