Poisoning with products of thermooxidizing destruction
- Symptoms of Poisoning with products of thermooxidizing destruction
- Reasons of Poisoning with products of thermooxidizing destruction
- Treatment of Poisoning with products of thermooxidizing destruction
Polyethylene receives by ethylene polymerization. Most VD polyethylene (high pressure) which is used for production of a film, sheets, large bottles, barrels and other various products was widely used.
At use of polyethylene as a container and a packing material for foodstuff migration of toxic substances is not revealed. However when processing polyethylene migration of oligomers happens hot steam (80 °C). When heating polyethylene to 150 °C mix of the flying products containing unsaturated hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide is emitted.
At even more high temperatures the products of thermooxidizing destruction having the irritating and toxic effect are allocated: they can cause acute and chronic poisonings.
Polyvinylchloride (PVC) - the thermoplastic material received by polymerization of vinyl chloride in the presence of emulsifiers and initiators (organic and inorganic peroxides, potassium or ammonium persulphates, etc.) with addition of plasticizers and stabilizers (compound of lead, cadmium and other metals). Maximum allowable concentration for polyvinylchloride - 6 mg/m3.
When processing PVC the air environment can be contaminated by chloride vinyl and other flying organic matters (ethers of phosphoric and phthalic acids, etc.). The Parogazovozdushny mixes which are formed as a result of thermooxidizing destruction of PVC can be the cause of acute and chronic professional poisonings.
Polystyrene plastic receive by polymerization of styrene using plasticizers, initiators (organic peroxides), mineral fillers and dyes. Manufacture the radio equipment, household goods, toys, a container for packaging of goods of them, a facing tile etc.
Acrylolayers (organic glasses, plexiglass) have valuable optical and physicomechanical properties. Poly(methyl acrylate), polymethyl methacrylate, polybutylacrylate concern to them. Turn out by polymerization of ethers of acrylic and methacrylic acids in the presence of peroxide catalysts and with introduction of plasticizers and dyes.
In production rooms couples rendering irritant action on mucous membranes of eyes and upper respiratory tracts can be allocated.
Phenoplasts turn out on the basis of phenolformaldehyde pitches (bakelites of equal brands) with fillers (a kaolin, cellulose, etc.) and hardeners (urotropin, etc.). Depending on structure of fillers and other additives receive the plastic (for example, textolite, glass-fiber, faolit) having the increased durability and other valuable physical properties.
In the course of production of phenolformaldehyde molding powders, and also at the subsequent processing of phenoplasts and products from them, phenol and formaldehyde come to air of production rooms. At interaction of dust of phenoplasts with fluid mediums of an organism a quantity of free phenol (or other phenols) and formaldehyde is also allocated (or other aldehydes). Thus, the main professional vrednost at these enterprises are фонол and formaldehyde. Maximum allowable concentration for phenoplast dust - 6 mg/m3.
Epoxies (эпон). Turn out condensation of epichlorohydrin with alcohols or phenols. Various hardeners are applied to the hardened pitches which are used as dielectrics and insulating material (polietilenpoliamina, hexamethylenediamine, diisocyanates, etc.). The hardened epoxies are used for production of varnishes, paints, impregnations etc.
In the course of receiving epoxies, and also at their use air of production rooms can become soiled the initial products and other ingredients used when receiving pitch.
Epoxies have the irritating and toxic, and also sensibilizing properties. It is connected with existence in pitch reactionary and active epo-and hydroxylic groups. Besides, the majority of other substances entering pitch composition (epichlorohydrin and especially some hardeners) has the irritating and sensibilizing effect.
Symptoms of Poisoning with products of thermooxidizing destruction:
At chronic intoxication polyvinylchloride against the background of a neurotic syndrome observes the neurangiosis phenomena, gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory diseases of skin, upper respiratory tracts, changes in lungs (chronic pneumonia, the phenomena of pulmonary fibrosis). Changes in bones are described. There can be polyneurites, dermatitis, eczemas and other allergoses are often observed.
Hit in air of production rooms of products of thermooxidizing destruction of polystyrene plastic can cause acute and chronic intoxications. The increased incidence of quinsies, an adenoid disease is noted. The main professional harm is pollution of the air environment styrene vapors.
At chronic intoxication epony - complaints to irritation of mucous upper respiratory tracts and eyes, headaches, increased fatigue, the dispepsichesky phenomena.
Objectively: the century, conjunctivitis, a catarral condition of upper respiratory tracts, bronchial asthma, functional frustration of a nervous system with the phenomena of vegetative dysfunction swelled. Toxic hepatitis, chronic cholecystitis, gastritis, colitis are possible. Skin diseases of allergic character arise preferential a pas open parts of a body as as a result of direct contact of skin with epoxy and other ingredients, and at influence of dust and volatiles.
Inhalation of high concentration of monomer of acrylolayer causes symptoms of acute poisoning: weakness, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, short-term loss of consciousness. Toxic action.
Reasons of Poisoning with products of thermooxidizing destruction:
Plastic (plastics, plastics) - the materials consisting generally of synthetic or natural high-molecular connections which when processing gain plastic properties and in the form of finished products are solids. High durability is inherent in plastic at the small relative density, chemical firmness is relative; they are not exposed to corrosion.
Plastic consist of binding substance, the plasticizer and a filler. Besides, in the course of production lubricants, accelerators of polymerization (catalysts), stabilizers, various additives, etc. are applied. Binding substances are synthetic pitches.
Plasticizers call the low-flying liquids capable to be dissolved in the plasticizing material, giving to a product plasticity, and in some cases and softness. As plasticizers use various organic compounds: esters of dibasic acids (phthalates, caprylates, ethers of cresols and phosphoric acid, etc.), the chlorinated diphenyls (for example, put), the chlorinated naftalina (for example, halowax), castor oil, camphor and мн. other. Plasticizers sometimes enter plastic in significant amounts. They do not enter a chemical change with an organic basis. Many plasticizers are capable to be allocated gradually from composition. It can be the cause of poisonings. The fillers (which are reducing the price of products and increasing its mechanical properties) can be: mica, graphite, asbestos, fiber glass, soot, wood flour, etc. As hardeners apply: urotropin, magnesium oxide, aliphatic amines, anhydrides of dibasic carboxylic acids etc. In quality of catalysts organic and inorganic peroxide compounds are used (hydrogen peroxide, urea peroxide, etc.). As initiators usually serve various acids and mineral salts. As stabilizers are used lead stearates, calcium, barium, soluble salts of cadmium, amines, etc.
When processing synthetic pitch and the plastic received on its basis, along with the remains of nezapolimerizovanny monomer, the remained intermediate products of reaction - hardeners, stabilizers, plasticizers can have toxic effect.
Poisonings as a result of inhalation of the fine disperse dust which is formed both at condensation of vapors, and when processing plastic are possible. Some components, especially a number of plasticizers, can get into an organism through skin.
When heating pitch or composition, and also in processes of hot or cold hardening of polymer and processing of plastic at which pitches or other components of composition are applied on the reinforcing fabric danger of allocation of the flying not reacted products increases, and at temperatures of their decomposition initial monomers and products of their thermal destruction (gaseous substances) can be emitted.
In an emergency (at the fire) acute poisonings with a complex of highly toxic products of pyrolysis are possible. Negative properties of polymeric materials and products from them is ability to accumulate charges of static electricity on the surface, and also to generate the high electric potentials having adverse effect at long contacts on a body of the person.
Plastic are divided into 4 groups:
1. The plastic on the basis of high-molecular substances received by polymerization (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, ftoroplasta, polystyrene plastic, polyacrylates, etc.).
2. The plastic on the basis of high-molecular substances received by polycondensation (phenoplasts, aminiplastics, amidolayers, poliefiroplasta, polyurethane, organosilicic plastic, etc.).
3. Plastic on the basis of chemically transformed natural substances (celluloid, этрол).
4 Plastic on the basis of natural and oil asfalt and pitches (asphalt plastic).
Treatment of Poisoning with products of thermooxidizing destruction:
Atsizol – the only thing in the world medicamentous cure for poisonings WITH and other products of burning, it is a highly effective antidote against acute poisoning with lethal doses of monocarbon monoxide, and also effective anti-hypoxanthomas at oxygen insufficiency. Use of ATsIZOLA opens essentially new way of fight against an anoxia by means of change of affinity of hemoglobin to blood gases and increases in portability of high concentration of carboxyhaemoglobin. Drug reduces the need of an organism for oxygen, promotes increase in resistance to a hypoxia of bodies, the most sensitive to a lack of O2 (a brain, a myocardium, a liver) and fills shortage of zinc in an organism.
The protective index of an atsizol at parenteral use makes 1.4 - 1.8. ATsIZOL is recommended as preventive and remedy at threat of poisoning or at poisoning with monoxide of carbon and products of thermooxidizing destruction of varying severity. Introduction of an atsizol injured directly on site accidents increases their chances of survival at severe forms of intoxication WITH, accelerates elimination of carbon oxide from an organism and promotes success of the subsequent medical actions (an oxygenotherapy, symptomatic medikamentozkny therapy). Atsizol substantially expands the volume of medical care by the victim, especially at a pre-hospital stage where there is practically no possibility of an iskpolzovaniye of hyperbaric oxygenation.