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Burnett's syndrome


Burnett's syndrome (S.N. of Burnett, 1936) (Xing.: milk and alkaline syndrome, milk poisoning).
The hypercalcemia syndrome with a metabolic alkalosis and adjournment of calcium in fabrics caused by long reception with food of the soaking-up alkalis (calcium carbonates and magnesium) and milk. It is more often noted at men.

Symptoms of the Syndrome of Burnett:

1.        Disgust for milk food, nausea, vomiting (loss of water and chlorides).
2.        General weakness, apathy, block, skin itch; in hard cases: ataxy and disturbance of consciousness.
3.        Signs of damage of kidneys with their insufficiency and it is frequent with secondary pyelonephritis. The hyperazotemia is noted not always.
And constant deposits of calcium in a cornea and its dot impregnations in a conjunctiva of eyes, and also adjournment in tubules of kidneys are the most frequent. At adjournment of lime in joints the arthralgia is observed. Distinguish two stages of development of a syndrome:
The 1st      stage (it is described by Koup) - completely reversible after cancellation of milk and alkalis.
The 2nd      stage (it is described by Burnett) - not completely reversible, proceeds many years after cancellation of milk and alkalis.

Reasons of the Syndrome of Burnett:

Burnett's syndrome quite often arises against the background of prolonged treatment of osteoporosis calcium carbonate, and also at treatment  of gastritis or a peptic ulcer of a stomach the soaking-up antacids.

Zabolevavniya strikes first of all persons with the broken regulation of absorption of calcium in intestines.

Main stages of a pathogeny:

- Excess absorption of calcium leads to an easy hypercalcemia.

- The hypercalcemia increases sodium excretion in kidneys, causes dehydration and suppresses secretion of PTG.

- As a result the bicarbonate reabsorption in kidneys amplifies that leads to an alkalosis.

- The alkalosis strengthens a calcium reabsorption in kidneys that leads to a moderate or heavy hypercalcemia. The calcium delay in kidneys is caused also by decrease in SKF. Treatment by vitamin D, and also the diseases which are characterized by the strengthened calcium absorption (for example, primary hyperparathyreosis), strengthen a hypercalcemia even more.

Treatment of the Syndrome of Burnett:

Termination of reception of calcium and antacids, regidratation; treatment of associated diseases -  primary hyperparathyreosis,  a peptic ulcer of a stomach.  Apply to treatment of gastritis and a peptic ulcer of a stomach mainly H2 blockers (Cimetidinum and  ranitidine) and not soaking up  antacids therefore Burnett's syndrome occurs at such patients less often.

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