- Reasons of a girudinoz
- Symptoms of a girudinoz
- Treatment of a girudinoz
Girudinoz (Latin hinido, from armor. hirudinis a bloodsucker + - osis) - the disease of the person arising owing to attack of bloodsuckers.
Reasons of a girudinoz:
Girudinoz is called by bloodsuckers. Bloodsuckers are widespread in many climatic zones, however is the widest - in tropical and subtropical. Live preferential in reservoirs, in the jungle live also on plants, are very mobile, eat blood, generally vertebrate animals. Attack of bloodsuckers on the person comes at water drink from standing reservoirs, aryk, swamps, reed lakes, during the bathing, circulation barefoot on wetlands.
Infection girudinozy comes during the bathing and drink of water from natural reservoirs with still or slaboprotochny water to which wells, aryk, creeks, lakes (generally reed), peat bogs, Staritsa, the bogged-up reservoirs belong.
It is also quite possible to catch during circulation on a wet grass, water meadows and fields, among coastal vegetation. First of all it concerns walking barefoot. It is especially difficult to notice bloodsuckers in a dense grass and at drink from buckets and other ware painted in dark color.
Bloodsuckers, attacking the person, can stick to skin and get into various cavities of an organism which are reported with the environment (for example, into airways, digestive tract).
Distinguish outside and internal гирудиноз. Outside гирудиноз consists in defeat by worms of integuments of a body. Bloodsuckers are fixed on skin most often in calves, shoulders, axillary hollows, a neck, a crotch and between buttocks. An internal girudinoz is called infection with blood-sicking bloodsuckers of the internal perigastriums open for penetration of parasites.
Emitting the hirudine which is strong anticoagulant and also the histamine-like substance expanding capillaries, bloodsuckers cause bleeding in the place of suction. Development of anemia, headaches and other symptoms depending on localization of a parasite are possible. Suction of a bloodsucker to voice folds or to a trachea wall since it can lead to asphyxia is the most dangerous.
Other factor of a pathogeny - the mechanical damages connected with the movement of a bloodsucker and traumatizing gentle fabrics by her. The last factor usually proves at an internal girudinoz when stay of a worm in perigastriums, channels and internals can cause obstruction of the courses, irritation, the spasmodic phenomena etc.
These pathological processes aggravate course of a girudinoz. Most hard гирудиноз proceeds at the persons predisposed or suffering from disturbances of the mechanism of coagulability of blood. Bleedings (the leading sign), headaches, the general weakness and the progressing anemia act as the main symptoms of a girudinoz.
Symptoms of a girudinoz:
Girudinoz is shown by bleedings, anemia, headaches and other symptoms depending on localization of a parasite. Suction of a bloodsucker to a glottis or to a trachea wall since it can lead to asphyxia is the most dangerous.
It is quite simple to make the diagnosis of an outside girudinoz, even the victim can make it.
It is enough to examine a body of the patient and to find on it a parasite or the wound which remained on site a sting. Diagnosis of an internal girudinoz is complicated even in the presence of the leading sign, i.e. bleeding. The doctor should exclude other possible reasons which caused an aggravation of symptoms of the patient.
Nasal bleedings demonstrate finding of a bloodsucker in a cavity of a nasopharynx or a nose. Sometimes at damage of a nasopharynx the stomatorrhagia opens. Throat bleeding and a pneumorrhagia are the leading signs of damage of a trachea. However the same symptoms accompany polyposes and some other diseases.
Treatment of a girudinoz:
Actually, all treatment of this disease in most cases comes down to elimination of the bloodsucker who caused it. After removal of a bloodsucker from skin (from perigastriums) there occurs improvement of a condition of the victim. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to be engaged in elimination of the complications caused by long stay of a worm on a body or in an organism. Most often problems such consist in need of a stop of plentiful bleeding.
Methods of release from cutaneous parasites arose in the deep past. Already primitive hunters and fishers living in the dense jungle faced maxillary worms and were forced to find ways of removal them from skin. The most trivial, at first sight, but at the same time technically incredibly difficult is elimination of a bloodsucker by means of a knife or sharply ground stick.
The ancient person applied to these purposes a stem with klyuvoobrazno the cut-off tip. "клювик" the prehistoric person placed this under an oral sucker of a bloodsucker, forcing it to unclench jaws and to be unhooked from skin. Such worm often itself falls off and falls to the ground, or it should be torn off own hands, but to make it now much simpler. While jaws of a bloodsucker pierce in flesh, it cannot be unhooked.
Of course, if to apply force, then it is possible to tear off a body of a bloodsucker, however her jaws and will remain got stuck in a skin layer. Afterwards such wound from the remains in it the oral device of a worm will become a source of extensive suppuration. Besides, such wound bleeds for 2-3 days. It serves as an accessory factor of risk of emergence in the struck fabrics of the center of a purulent infection.
That is why removal of bloodsuckers is carried out using make-shifts, but in any way not barehanded. However it is difficult to call a stem and partly the knife replacing it the best of such means. The branch or a knife can scratch skin, bring an infection in a wound, cut off a bloodsucker, having left it to a jaw in the place of a prokus. Therefore more benefit will be brought by use of other methods of controlling with harmful bloodsuckers.
Smokers can recommend to use the lit cigarettes. Once you press a cigarette the burning party to a body of a bloodsucker, the worm is turned by a hook and falls off skin. Not to keep constantly in readiness the lit cigarette, it is reasonably simple to stock up with tobacco. If on a bloodsucker to fill a little tobacco powder, then it will cause irritation of her thin skin, and it will lag behind skin.
There are also other effective ways to get rid of a parasite. All of them, anyway, are connected with property of a worm to react violently to chemical irritation of integuments. Instead of tobacco a bloodsucker with equal success it is possible to salt, slightly to spread with iodine or alcohol. Being applied on a thin skin of a bloodsucker, several drops of the medical alcohol or any strong drink which appeared near at hand force this animal to unclench jaws quickly. During removal of a bloodsucker in marching conditions the place around a wound is processed by 5-10% solution of iodine, medical alcohol or any other antiseptic agent. Then this area is redressed by the dense (pressing) bandage. The patient is obliged to see a doctor.
Quite often at the proceeding bleeding there is a need to impose brackets on a wound. Removal of bloodsuckers from internal cavities is carried out only by the specialist. For this purpose it applies tampons with iodine or alcohol which are entered into the infected cavities on depth of localization of a bloodsucker. Apply also rinsings of an oral cavity and a nasopharynx strong solution of table salt in case of finding of a worm in these cavities.
Solution causes irritation of a thin skin of a bloodsucker, forcing it to be unhooked from a mucous membrane. Only the doctor who will drain previously an oral cavity from salivary allocations and will provide to the victim situation in which the lagged behind bloodsucker will not be able to get into a trachea or a gullet can perform the similar procedure correctly.
It is forbidden to use solution for syringing of an urethra and a vagina because salt adversely influences on mucous these bodies. Hit of a helminth in an urethra, a gullet, a stomach, a trachea and a glottis is considered a hard case. Often these situations demand surgical intervention. The stop of internal bleeding demands the strengthened chemotherapy using, among others drugs, antagonists of hirudine and other components of a salivary secret of bloodsuckers.
Sometimes there is a need of operational treatment, for example, during removal of bloodsuckers from the nasal courses, a throat, a trachea.
The forecast of a girudinoz at the early diagnosis is almost always favorable if there is an opportunity timely to provide medical care. Complications at a girudinoza arise rather seldom, generally hard cases are presented girudinozy against the background of hemophilia, hemolysis, anemia (anemia), other disturbances of system of a blood coagulation and pathologies of a hemopoiesis, i.e. almost healthy person will not suffer from infection with bloodsuckers.
Long stay of a bloodsucker in an organism of the victim is fraught with the notable blood loss which is followed by various negative effects, among which the general weakening of an organism. The microclimate of the environment in which there is a victim, defines a risk degree of infection of the wound put with a bloodsucker.
Prevention of infection with harmful bloodsuckers in the environment comes down preferential to strict observance of hygienic rules. For the purpose of the prevention of an internal girudinoz of people it is obliged to avoid bathing in the natural reservoirs occupied by bloodsuckers, first of all in ponds, lakes, staritsa, creeks and other still waters.
During rest in the country where it is eurysynusic гирудиноз, it is necessary to visit exclusively swimming pools or specially equipped beaches. At visit of beaches on coast of lakes diving and swimming at the bottom since at the same time bloodsuckers get access to oral and to other open perigastriums is excluded. Will not prevent to stock up with the bathing hat protecting the swimmer's ears because worms often are fixed behind auricles.
It is undesirable to bathe in natural reservoirs in bikini or, especially, in general without swimwear as it increases risk of infection. After stay in water of a natural reservoir it is necessary to perform careful inspection of a body surface and oral cavity.
As often infection with blood-sicking worms occurs through drinking water, it is necessary to show care at drink from wells and other tanks connected with natural reservoirs. It is desirable to exclude the use of water from natural sources of any type. If after all the need for drink is big, then is reasonable to scoop water ware.
Before the use water is required to be considered attentively, checking presence of bloodsuckers or plant residues under which they can take cover (the fallen-down leaflets etc.). In general the stated above rules of precaution are suitable also as preventive measures from an outside girudinoz. Staying near natural reservoirs or in a tourist zone, it is worth to remember about land bloodsuckers who are also causative agents of this disease. Therefore, the prevention of an outside girudinoz comes down to special processing of skin and observance of rules of wearing clothes. Everywhere, where bloodsuckers can meet, the person is obliged to protect legs as the most vulnerable part of a body in respect of infection.
It is necessary to select the clothes which are reliably covering skin and at the same time not interfering dermal respiration in the conditions of moisture and a heat. When it is necessary to go long on a wet grass or through wet thickets, it is required to put on himself trousers from light matter, whenever possible filling for the period of transition the ends of trouser-legs in socks and (or) boots. It is not recommended to put on jeans as their fabric in tropical climate causes a skin itch.
In the morning, after retreat of fog, during transition through the site of a sylva in tropical countries it is useful to put on high gumboots as it is the most efficient protection against worms legs. It is impossible to leave unbuttoned a collar of a shirt or a blouse because bloodsuckers can be attached to a neck and go down on it on a trunk. Socks, stockings and the lower part of trouser-legs are subject to processing indalony or dimethyl phthalate solution - the means which are frightening off bloodsuckers.
Footwear before walk outdoors is required to be covered with a thin layer of liquid soap. It is necessary to take a bath or a shower before an exit, using fragrant soap. Women can use tart spirits with strong and persistent smell. It is known that bloodsuckers do not transfer such smells. Respectively, men should use cologne. At the same time it is desirable to apply perfume at the same time and on legs, first of all on their unprotected parts.
As bloodsuckers do not love salt, very effective frightening-off remedy is the salt bandage which carrying is recommended to the fans of active tourism liking to stay long outdoors where there is a danger of infection with parasites. This means was thought up by indigenous people of the island of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) which suffers from several species of bloodsuckers.
Tseylontsa in the preventive purposes legs tie with bandage or do a gauze bandage. Layers of a bandage are filled up with table salt. Certainly, it is the best of all to do such bandage over socks. Skin should not adjoin at all to the gauze seasoned with salt as it will cause strong irritation. Correctly executed protective bandage is applied as follows.
Over a sock or naked jellies and the lower part of a shin nabintovyvatsya densely several layers of a gauze. These layers are not poured by salt, but form the barrier to it protecting integuments of legs. The subsequent turnover of bandage is filled up with salt then the bandage densely, but not hardly drags on. Over it the footwear on a thick sole which is not passing moisture is put on.
In case of a namokaniye of a bandage it whenever possible is removed somewhat quicker to avoid dissolution of salt and impact of saline solution on leg skin. To leave such bandage for the night even if the tourist decided to settle to sleep in a tent, it is undesirable. To secure themselves against harmful bloodsuckers who can get into a tent on a wet grass, to the person the gauze which is rather removed from legs to unwind and spread before an entrance to a tent and along its walls.