- Anthrax symptoms
- Anthrax reasons
- Treatment of the Anthrax
The anthrax represents diffuse is purulent - a necrotic inflammation of deep layers of a derma and a hypoderma with involvement in process of several next hair follicles. At an anthrax it is purulent - necrotic infiltrate occupies the big space and spreads in deeper layers of a derma and a hypoderma, than at a furuncle.
The word "anthrax" comes from the Greek word carbo - coal and means "углевик" as formed in process it is purulent - a necrotic inflammation large sites of a necrosis have dark color, as formed the basis to comparison of a disease with coal.
Favourite localization - the back surface of a neck, spin, a waist.
Clinic and course of an anthrax. At the beginning of development of an anthrax in skin several separate dense small knots which merge in one infiltrate are found. The last increases, sometimes, reaching the sizes of a children's palm. The surface gets it semi-spherical shape, skin becomes intense, in the center of infiltrate is painted in cyanotic color: local morbidity is expressed. It is the first stage of development of infiltrate which lasts 8-12 days. Then in the field of infiltrate several pustules which tires are opened form, and it is formed several openings giving to an anthrax the look reminding a sieve. Through these openings pus and necrotic mass of green color with blood impurity are emitted. Gradually increasing sites of the center of an anthrax are exposed to a necrosis. The torn-away masses forms extensive defect of fabric - the deep ulcer sometimes reaching muscles forms. The second stage - a stage of suppuration and a necrosis - lasts from 14 to 20 days. Further the ulcer is filled with granulyatsionny fabric and the rough deep hem soldered to the subject fabrics is formed, as a rule. Large hems remain also after an operative measure if it is carried out concerning an anthrax.
Usually there is single anthrax. Their development is followed by high temperature, painful pains of the tearing, pulling character, a fever, an indisposition. The malignant course of an anthrax can be observed at senile age, at the exhausted patients having the expressed diabetes at psychological reexhaustions. In these cases neuralgic pains, nonsense or deep prostration, fever of septic character develop. Death can come from profuse bleeding from a large vessel and from sepsis. At localization in a nose, an upper lip heavy meningeal complications are possible.
The causative agent of an anthrax - golden staphylococcus, is more rare - other types of staphylococcus.
In a pathogeny play a role exhaustion (owing to chronic malnutrition or the postponed serious general illness) and disbolism, especially carbohydrate (at a diabetes mellitus).
Treatment of the Anthrax:
In out-patient conditions treatment of an anthrax of the small sizes which are localized on a trunk and extremities in the absence of the expressed intoxication is admissible. At the beginning of a disease, in the presence of only inflammatory infiltrate, before formation it is purulent - the necrotic center, antibacterial therapy is shown. Appoint antibiotics, as a rule, of a broad spectrum of activity - ampicillin, ампиокс, etc., synthetic antibacterial drugs of a broad spectrum of activity - Biseptolum, фурагин. Also cardiacs, a milk and vegetable diet are shown analgesic. The surface of infiltrate is processed by 70% alcohol and apply an aseptic bandage. Apply ultra-violet radiation, UVCh-therapy. At a favorable effect of conservative therapy involution of infiltrate occurs in 2 - 3 days and is followed by reduction of pains, decrease in body temperature, normalization of a picture of blood.
The indication to operation is formation of the center of a necrosis. Operation for a small anthrax is performed under local anesthesia 0,5 - 0,25% novocaine solution. The anthrax is crosswisely cut through all thickness of a necrosis to viable fabrics with the subsequent necretomy. Operation is finished with introduction to a wound of tampons with hypertonic salt solution of sodium chloride or proteolytic enzymes. Before final rejection it is purulent - necrotic masses daily replace bandages with proteolytic enzymes, hypertonic salt solution of sodium chloride, according to indications carry out stage necretomies, then use drugs on an ointment basis (10% metiluratsilovy ointment, vinylene, etc.). After operation continue antibacterial therapy, physical therapy.
The big sizes of an anthrax, progressing it is purulent - necrotic process, a noncompensated diabetes mellitus, increase of intoxication are the indication to hospitalization. Treatment of the anthrax which is localized on a face needs also to be carried out in a hospital.